University College London Brand Impact & Popular Culture Paper

Description

Critically analyse the role of brands in celebrity positioning and the quest for popular constructive advantage
The assessments for this module are designed to incorporate both creative work and theoretical underpinning, using the techniques and theories taught throughout the module. They are designed to be engaging and relevant to modern marketing and advertising.

Supporting Statement

Each individual student will submit a 1000 word supporting statement following on from their theme board. This should discuss and evaluate the decision-making process, critically analyse the effect of the chosen celebrity as an ambassador for the chosen brand and discuss how it will help to position the brand for popular constructive advantage.  Selected theoretical models should be used to support the evaluation. Harvard referencing to be used
Assessment Content
The below is suggested content your supporting statement:
Justify your choice of business brand (product or service) as linked with a celebrity brand 
Discuss the brand typology link between the business brand and celebrity brand 
Discuss how the business and celebrity brand might influence one specific and defined target segment 
Discuss how the business and celebrity brand personalities relates to a typical individual from the target segment
Discuss how the business and celebrity brand might project at least two attributes of added value 
Discuss the key business/celebrity brand purposeBrand Impact &
Popular Culture
CW2 Assessment Brief
Supporting Statement
Sensitivity: Internal
Key dates and details
Assessment Type:
Individual Supporting Statement
Word count/Length:
1000 words (+/- 10%)
Learning Outcomes:
LO2: Critically analyse the role of brands in celebrity
positioning and the quest for popular constructive
advantage
Description of the assessment
It is important that students recognise that the core outcome for any module assessment is
the development of academic knowledge relevant to the subject area (hence the clearly laid
out learning outcomes in the module handbook).
The assessments for this module are designed to incorporate both creative work and
theoretical underpinning, using the techniques and theories taught throughout the module.
They are designed to be engaging and relevant to modern marketing and advertising.
Your module is assessed by 100% individual coursework and takes the form of two separate
pieces of coursework – CW1: a theme board and CW2: a supporting statement, both for
your chosen organisation and celebrity.
CW2: Supporting Statement (40%)
Each individual student will submit a 1000 word supporting statement following on from
their theme board. This should discuss and evaluate the decision-making process, critically
analyse the effect of the chosen celebrity as an ambassador for the chosen brand and
discuss how it will help to position the brand for popular constructive advantage. Selected
theoretical models should be used to support the evaluation. Harvard referencing to be
used.
Assessment Content
The below is suggested content your supporting statement:

Justify your choice of business brand (product or service) as linked with a celebrity
brand

Discuss the brand typology link between the business brand and celebrity brand
2
Sensitivity: Internal

Discuss how the business and celebrity brand might influence one specific and
defined target segment

Discuss how the business and celebrity brand personalities relates to a typical
individual from the target segment

Discuss how the business and celebrity brand might project at least two attributes of
added value

Discuss the key business/celebrity brand purpose
Tips:

The supporting statement should provide additonal narrative to the theme board

Structure the statement professionally, using clear sections, subheadings, an
introduction and a conclusion

Use it to explain, justify and critically evaluate your decisions

Use it to provide additional clarity to the theme board

Use it as an opportunity to add value to the theme board

It should be more than just descriptive

Snapshots of your themeboard are vital, to support/illustrate your points

No additional tables or diagrams are allowed
Assessment Rubric (overleaf)
3
Sensitivity: Internal
Marking Criteria: Supporting Statement – overall weighting 40% – 1000 words (+/- 10%)
To
achieve
1 to 34
Lacks any
justification
of choice of
business
brand to
link with a
celebrity
brand
Lacks any
evaluation of
brand
typology link
between the
business
brand and
celebrity
brand
Lacks any
discussion of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might
influence
emotional
connection
with specific
target
segment/s
Lacks any
discussion of
how business
and celebrity
brand
personality
relates to a
typical
individual from
the target
segments
Lacks any
evaluation of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might project
attributes of
added value
Lacks any
discussion of the
business/celebrity
brand purpose
To
achieve
35 to
39
Lacks much
justification
of choice of
business
brand to
link with a
celebrity
brand
Lacks much
evaluation of
brand
typology link
between the
business
brand and
celebrity
brand
Lacks much
discussion of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might
influence
emotional
connection
with specific
target
segment/s
Lacks much
discussion of
how business
and celebrity
brand
personality
relates to a
typical
individual from
the target
segment/s
Lacks much
evaluation of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might project
attributes of
added value
Lacks much
discussion of the
business/celebrity
brand purpose
To
achieve
40 to
49
Fair level of
justification
of choice of
business
brand to
link with a
celebrity
brand
Fair level of
evaluation of
brand
typology link
between the
business
brand and
celebrity
brand
Fair level of
discussion of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might
influence
emotional
connection
with specific
target
segment/s
Fair level of
discussion of
how business
and celebrity
brand
personality
relates to a
typical
individual from
the target
segment/s
Fair level of
evaluation of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might project
attributes of
added value
Fair level of
discussion of the
business/celebrity
brand purpose
To
achieve
50 to
59
Fairly good
justification
of choice of
business
brand to
link with a
celebrity
brand
Fairly good
evaluation of
brand
typology link
between the
business
brand and
celebrity
brand
Fairly good
discussion of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might
influence
emotional
connection
with specific
Fairly good
discussion of
how business
and celebrity
brand
personality
relates to a
typical
individual from
Fairly good
evaluation of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might project
attributes of
added value
Fairly good
discussion of the
business/celebrity
brand purpose
Sensitivity: Internal
target
segment/s
the target
segment/s
To
achieve
60 to
69
Very good
justification
of choice of
business
brand to
link with a
celebrity
brand
Very good
evaluation of
brand
typology link
between the
business
brand and
celebrity
brand
Very good
discussion of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might
influence
emotional
connection
with specific
target
segment/s
Very good
discussion of
how business
and celebrity
brand
personality
relates to a
typical
individual from
the target
segment/s
Very good
evaluation of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might project
attributes of
added value
Very good
discussion of the
business/celebrity
brand purpose
To
achieve
70 to
79
Extremely
good critical
justification
of choice of
business
brand to
link with a
celebrity
brand
Extremely
good critical
evaluation of
brand
typology link
between the
business
brand and
celebrity
brand
Extremely
good critical
discussion of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might
influence
emotional
connection
with specific
target
segment/s
Extremely good
critical
discussion of
how business
and celebrity
brand
personality
relates to a
typical
individual from
the target
segment
Extremely good
critical
evaluation of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might project
attributes of
added value
Extremely good
critical discussion of
the
business/celebrity
brand purpose
To
achieve
80 to
89
Excellent,
analytical
critical
justification
of choice of
business
brand to
link with a
celebrity
brand
Excellent,
analytical
critical
evaluation of
brand
typology link
between the
business
brand and
celebrity
brand
Excellent,
analytical
critical
discussion of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might
influence
emotional
connection
with specific
target
segment/s
Excellent,
analytical
critical
discussion of
how business
and celebrity
brand
personality
relates to a
typical
individual from
the target
segment/s
Excellent,
analytical critical
evaluation of
how the
business and
celebrity brand
might project
attributes of
added value
Excellent, analytical
critical discussion of
the
business/celebrity
brand purpose
Exceptional,
analytical,
critiqued
justification
of choice of
Exceptional,
analytical,
critiqued
evaluation of
brand
Exceptional,
analytical,
critiqued
discussion of
how the
Exceptional,
analytical,
critiqued
discussion of
how business
Exceptional,
analytical,
critiqued
evaluation of
how the
Exceptional,
analytical, critiqued
discussion of the
business/celebrity
brand purpose
To
achieve
5
Sensitivity: Internal
90 to
100
business
brand to
link with a
celebrity
brand
typology link
between the
business
brand and
celebrity
brand
business and
celebrity brand
might
influence
emotional
connection
with specific
target
segment/s
and celebrity
brand
personality
relates to a
typical
individual from
the target
segment/s
6
Sensitivity: Internal
business and
celebrity brand
might project
attributes of
added value
6MK500
Lecture One: Module Introduction
Historical and Contemporary Branding Practice
Chrissie Rowell
Sensitivity: Internal
Hello and welcome!
Module Leader:
Chrissie Rowell
Email:
c.rowell@derby.ac.uk
Sensitivity: Internal
Weeks 1 – 5 will be taught by
Nofisat Ayantola
Email: TBC
Lecture Summary
Module
Introduction
Sensitivity: Internal
What is
Branding?
Evolution
Practical
Application of
Branding
Module Delivery
 Lectures:
Busier 12
 2 hour
Life Styles
 Seminars: 12
 2 hours
 Requires student participation
Sensitivity: Internal
Ethical
Consumers
Module Aims and Learning
Outcomes…
1. Apply a range of branding concepts and techniques to evaluate the nature of
popular culture, brand identity, personality, architecture and positioning
2. Critically analyse the role of brands in celebrity positioning and the quest for
popular constructive advantage

Sensitivity: Internal
“This is a module that is driven by
industry and powered by academia”
Sensitivity: Internal
Reading List: Core Text
Chernatony, L., McDonald, M., and
Wallace, E., (2012) Creating
Powerful Brands, 4th Edition,
Butterworth-Heinemann.
Sensitivity: Internal
Reading
List:
Sources
Websites:
Mintel: www.mintel.com
Statista: www.statista.com
Marketline: www.marketline.com
The Market Research Society: www.mrs.org.uk
Marketing Research Association: www.mra-net.org
European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research: www.esomar.org
WARC ( World Advertising Research Centre ): www.warc.com
Journals:
Journal of Brand Management
Journal of Brand Strategy
Journal of Product and Brand Management
Journal of Marketing Research
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Assessment
Assignment
Submission Dates
Theme Board Presentation (60%)
Tues 2nd
May 2023
11:00 am
Each individual student will submit a presented theme board. The theme board
should have between 10 (minimum) and 12 (maximum) frames. The theme board
should use frameworks, concepts of branding to examine the link between a chosen
celebrity and chosen brand. It should be presented and recorded in PowerPoint.
Covering Statement (40%)
Each individual student will submit a covering report. This should Each
individual student will submit a covering report. This will
discuss and evaluate the theme board using the frameworks employed.
The word limit for this is up to 1000 words, +/- 10%.
Sensitivity: Internal
Tuesday 23rd
May 2023
11:00 am
What is Branding?
“Branding is the process of giving a meaning to
specific organisation, company, products or
services by creating and shaping a brand in
consumers’ minds.”
(The Branding Journal, 2021)

Sensitivity: Internal
What is Branding?
“A name, term, sign, symbol, or design,
or a combination of them, intended to
identify the goods and services of one
seller or group of sellers and to
differentiate them from those of
competitors.”
(Keller, 2003)

Sensitivity: Internal
What is Branding?
Identifier
Products and
Characteristic
s
Adapted from (Ballantyne and Aitken, 2007)
Sensitivity: Internal
Symbolic
Reference
THINKING
P O I N T:
WHY DO WE BUY BRANDS?
Emotional
Rational
14
Sensitivity: Internal
1.
Sensitivity: Internal
Evolution:
Early Years
Evolution: Early years
 Brands as a compound expression (1922)
 i.e. brand name
 Branding as an “aggressive sales method” (Cherington, 1920, p.150)
 “the appeal to the public to buy…”
 Brand is a mere label describing a particular variety and grade of goods
(Brown, 1925, pg. 422)
Sensitivity: Internal
Evolution:
1940s-1950s
Sensitivity: Internal
Evolution: 1940s and 1950s
 Branding as a business practice
 The brand image
 Brand image: a major advancement in branding
 Producers such as Folger (1872), Kraft (1903), and Vlasic (1942)
 Consumer Revolution (1940s and 1950s)
 Lack of differentiation (Gardner and Levy, 1955)
Sensitivity: Internal
3.
Sensitivity: Internal
Evolution:
1980s – 1990s
Evolution: 1980s and 1990s
 Branding from a cognitive psychology perspective
 “Share of the mind” (Trout and Ries, 1981)
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDzZg3OE3B8
 Traditional Definition
“A brand is a product that adds other dimensions to differentiate it
in some way, from other products designed to satisfy the same
need.”
(Keller, 1998, pg. 4)
Sensitivity: Internal
4.
Sensitivity: Internal
Evolution:
2000s
Evolution: 2000s
 Brands were conceptualised as a set of mental
associations
“ Brand are the tangible item of intellectual property – the
logo, name, design, or image – on which the brand rests. But
brands also incorporate intangibles such as identity,
associations, and personality.“
(Mercer, 2010, p. 18)
Sensitivity: Internal
Evolution: 2000s

Brands encouraged engaged loyalty based on emotional ties

Brands as communities: modern technologies allow this
Brands
Social Media
Followers
Sensitivity: Internal
Friends
Advocates
““A brand vision should attempt to go
beyond functional benefits to consider
organisational values; a higher purpose;
brand personality; and emotional, social, and
self-expressive benefits.”
Aaker (2014)

Sensitivity: Internal
What is Influencer Marketing?
“As the world has shifted to social media, consumers look at
fellow consumers to inform their purchasing decisions.
Instead of looking at companies, as they did in the past,
they now look at each other and at their favourite
personalities, who are consolidating massive followings on
You tube, Instagram, Snapchat, Pinterest, and other
platforms…”
(Adweek, 2015)

Sensitivity: Internal
WHAT IS THE CONTEXT OF THE
ASSIGNMENT?
ONE
TWO
• Choose an existing brand
• Understand its past and present
• Establish the future direction of the
THREE brand
• Choose and endorser/influencer
for the brand
FOUR
FIVE
• Evaluate the synergy between the
brand and chosen endorser
26
Sensitivity: Internal
WHAT IS THE CONTEXT OF THE ASSIGNMENT?
ONE
TWO
• Choose an existing brand
1. Pick a brand that you are
interested in.
• Understand its past and
present
2. This will be demonstrated
through the application of a range
of theoretical models.
• Establish the future direction of
the brand
THREE
• Choose and
endorser/influencer for the
FOUR
brand
FIVE
• Evaluate the synergy between
the brand and chosen endorser
Sensitivity: Internal
3. Pick an endorser/influencer that
you think will be best suited to the
brand. They cannot have worked in
collaboration previously.
4. This will be demonstrated through
the application of a range of theoretical
models.
27
Ensure the celebrity/influencer and brand
are not currently linked
 Poster size/format
 10 to 12 frames means each frame is similar to one
slide
CLARIFICATION
ON THE
THEME
BOARD
60%
Sensitivity: Internal
 Clearly sequence and title your frames
 Use relevant models and frameworks from our
learning, to support your decisions
 Feel free to use any relevant models from additional
readings also
 Use a good balance of words, visuals, models and
colours
 Use relevant package such as Canva, PowerPoint,
publisher or one you are familiar with
 Think of the colours and imagery your brand uses
 Develop some clear brand guidelines regarding
colour and theme
TIPS FOR THE
THEME BOARD
 Stick with these brand guidelines as you create the
theme board
 Sketch out the concept of the theme board first
 Think clearly about the story or journey you want
to take your client on
 Think clearly about the models that you want to
use
 It is both a creative and an academic expression
Sensitivity: Internal
 Practice and make sure it’s not over 10 minutes!
 You will not have time to cover every single aspect
of your theme board, so pick ‘key’ discussion
points from each frame or slide
TIPS FOR THE
PRESENTATION
OF THE THEME
BOARD
Sensitivity: Internal
 Discuss these in a professional and confident
manner, ensuring you evidence critical thinking
 Speak clearly and slowly – try not to rush
 Re-record it if you are not happy!
 Overall word limit 1000 words (+/- 10%)
 Executive summary = 1 PAGE (NOT INCLUDED IN WORD
COUNT)
CLARIFICATION
ON THE
REPORT
40%
Sensitivity: Internal
 Introduction
 Main body
 Conclusion
 References (to include models used on the theme
board)
 The report provides the narrative to the
theme board
TIPS FOR THE
REPORT
 Enables you to explain, justify and
critically evaluate the models used
 Use it to provide clarity to the theme
board
 Use it as an opportunity to add value to
the theme board
 It should be more than just ‘descriptive’
Sensitivity: Internal
• Full marking criteria and briefs will be
on blackboard.
• Deadlines:
ONE LAST NOTE…
Theme Board Presentation: Tuesday 2nd
May, 11:00am
Supporting Statement: Tuesday 23rd May,
11.00am
• Both the theme board presentation
and report are to be submitted
electronically via turnitin
Sensitivity: Internal
Any Questions?

Sensitivity: Internal
Next Lecture: Week 2
Understanding the Branding Process
Recommended Reading:
Core Text:
De Chernatony (2012) – Chapter 2
Journal Article:
Urde, M. (1999). Brand orientation: a mindset for building
brands into strategic resources. Journal of Marketing
Management, 15, 117-133.
Sensitivity: Internal
References
Aaker, D.A. (1995), Building Strong Brands, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.
Aaker, D.A. (2004), Brand Portfolio Strategy, Free Press, New York, NY.
Ballantyne, R., Warren, A. & Nobbs, K. (2006). The evolution of brand choice. The Journal of Brand
Management, 13, 339-352.
Cherington, P.T. (1920), The Elements of Marketing, Macmillan, New York, NY.
Fournier, S. (1998), “Consumers and their brands: developing relationship theory in consumer research”,
Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 24, March, pp. 343-73.
Fredrix, E. (2010), “Baby carrots sport bold new look”, Wall Street Journal, September 4, p. A13.
Gardner, B.B. and Levy, S.J. (1955), “The product and the brand”, Harvard Business Review, March-April, pp.
33-9.
Sensitivity: Internal
References
Keller, K.L. (1993), “Conceptualizing, measuring and managing customer-based brand equity”, Journal of
Marketing, Vol. 57, January, pp. 1-22.
Keller, K.L. (1998), Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, Pearson
Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Levy, S.J. (1974), “Marketing and aesthetics”, Brands, Consumers, Symbols, and Research, American
Marketing Association Summer Educators Conference Talk, Sage Publishing, Beverly Hills, CA, pp. 84-102.
Mercer, J. (2010), “A mark of distinction: branding and trade mark law in the UK from the 1860s”, Business
History, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 17-42.
Sensitivity: Internal
6MK500
Lecture Three:
Brand Management and Purpose
Chrissie Rowell / Nofisat Ayantola
Sensitivity: Internal
Lecture Summary
What is Brand
Positioning?
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand
Architecture
What is Brand
Purpose
What is Brand Management?
Strategic Brand Management is a long-term
and integrative approach that the company
adopts in creating, developing and
managing its brand.
(Kapferer, 2014; 2015)
Sensitivity: Internal
Strategic Brand Management Process
Identify and establish brand positioning
Plan and implement brand marketing programs
Measure and interpret brand performance
Grow and sustain brand value
Sensitivity: Internal
(Keller, 2014)
The Implications of Positioning
 What factors are important to customers?
 E.g. Supermarkets – quality, price, convenience, range?
 Where is the brand currently positioned?
 Where could it be re-positioned?
Sensitivity: Internal
Identify and Establish Brand
Positioning
Sensitivity: Internal
(Kapferer, 2014)
The Brand
for whom?
The Brand
for what?
Positioning a Brand
The Brand
– why?
Sensitivity: Internal
The Brand
against whom?
The 4Cs of Effective
Positioning
Clarity
(Jobber and Fahy, 2019)
Consistency
Do the brand elements represent the
brand accurately?
How clear is the message and the
proposition?
Is it free from confusion?
Does the customer know what to
expect?
Is the message being replicated
accurately across all integrated
platforms?
Is the tone of voice consistent?
Is the brand being represented
authentically across all touch points?
Credibility
Competitiveness
Does the message evoke a sense of
trust in the brand?
Can it follow through on its promises
without leading to an expectation
gap?
Are there any messages (external or
internal) that are eroding brand
trust?
Sensitivity: Internal
What is the brand competing on?
It’s not always price – brands can
compete on quality, service
standards, desirability, uniqueness,
innovation
And many more factors…
Brand Typologies:
CLEAN SLATE – Unknown/little idea what they stand for
WEAK – Better known than clean slate/require major investment
LITTLE TIGER – Early adopter/niche
DEFENDER – Not strongest but not under duress
OLYMPIC – Champion/benchmark for others
CLASSIC – Leading but not great
SPECIALIST – Unsuitable for mass audience
FADING STARS – Overtaken by others
LOVEMARKS – Have strong functional, emotional and experiential appeal
(Source: Millward brown 2014, Saatchi & Saatchi 2017)
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Typologies to Understand Positioning
Love marks
(Apple)
High
Olympic (Nike)
Little Tiger (Dash Water)
Specialist (B2B)
Momentum
(future
potential)
Classic (Ford)
Defender (Morrisons?)
Clean Slate
Fading Star (M&S?)
Weak
Low
Low
Sensitivity: Internal
Presence
(recognised)
(Source: Millward brown 2014, Saatchi & Saatchi 2017)
High
Brand Architecture (also
called ‘branding strategy’)
What is Brand Architecture?
It is the number and nature of common and
distinctive brand elements applied to the
products sold by a company (e.g. brand names,
logos and symbols etc.)
(Aaker, 2004. pg. 6)
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
The Role of Brand Architecture
To Clarify: Brand Awareness
 Improve consumer awareness and
understanding
 To communicate similarity and differences
To Motivate: Brand Image
 To transfer equity from the brand to individual
products
Sensitivity: Internal
Capitalisation on a Successful Brand –
Brand Extension
Brand extension – When another firm uses an established brand name to introduce
a new product in a new market
Sensitivity: Internal
Capitalisation on a Successful
Brand –Line Extensions
Line extension – targeting a new market segment within the same product category
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Discussion:
When are brand
extensions
appropriate?
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Added Value
“Brand-added value is the contribution of the brand name and
its related
connotations to the consumer’s valuation of the branded article
as a whole.” (Riezebos, 2003)
Three components can contribute to brand-added value:
1) Perceived performance
2) Extent of brand name awareness
3) Psycho-social meaning
Sensitivity: Internal
Five Dimensions of Psychosocial
Meaning
(Keller and Riezebos, 1997)
1. Sincerity: Honest, cheerful, down-to-earth and
wholesome.
2. Excitement: Daring, imaginative, up-to-date,
spirited.
3. Competence: Reliable, intelligent, successful.
4. Sophistication: upper-class, charming
5. Ruggedness: Outgoing, tough.
Sensitivity: Internal
Break Time…
15 minutes
…see you soon
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Purpose…
Sensitivity: Internal
What is Brand Purpose?
“Having a Purpose means
being crystal clear about why
you are here — based on who
you are and what you stand
for.” (Kramer, 2017, p.3)
Sensitivity: Internal
What is Brand Purpose?
(Kramer,
2017)
Sensitivity: Internal
Start with WHY…
Sensitivity: Internal
CSR.
When ‘why’ has to benefit more
than just customers…
Sensitivity: Internal
?
Sensitivity: Internal
Fit for purpose index 2016
Radley Yeldar
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
The Benefits of Brand
Purpose
 Clear brand purpose keeps brands consistent
in delivering on their ‘core values’
 Clear brand purpose makes differentiation
easier
 Clear brand purpose is communicated from
the outside in and everyone lives by it
 Clear brand purpose helps brands remain
aligned throughout strategic changes and
Sensitivity: Internal
shifts
Assignment thinking
point…
Understanding and being able to articulate your
chosen brand’s purpose, will help you to
make a more sensible and justifiable decision
about the celebrity that you pair it with.
Do you understand your brand’s purpose…?
Sensitivity: Internal
Session Overview
 We have outlined and discussed the purpose
of brand management
 Discussed several ways to categorise brand
typologies
 Outline the importance of meaning transfer
 Discussed brand purpose
Sensitivity: Internal
Next Lecture: Session 4
How Consumers Choose Brands
Reading:
Core Text:
De Chertatony (2012) – Chapter 3
Sensitivity: Internal
References

Chernatony, L., McDonald, M., and Wallace, E., (2012) Creating Powerful Brands, 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann

Chernatony L. and Cottam. S. (2008) “Interactions between organisational cultures and corporate brands”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 17, Vol . 1,
pp.13 – 24

Fahy, J. and Jobber, D. (2019) Foundations of Marketing. McGraw-Hill Education.

Giovanis, A. and Athanasopoulou, P. (2018) ‘Understanding lovemark brands: Dimensions and effect on Brand loyalty in high-technology products’, Spanish Journal of
Marketing – ESIC, 22(3), pp. 272–294.

Kapferer, J.-N. (2012) The New Strategic Brand Management: Advanced Insights and Strategic Thinking. Kogan Page Publishers.

Keller, K.L. (2016) Reflections on customer-based brand equity: perspectives, progress, and priorities. AMS Review, pp. 1-16.

Keller, K.L. (1993) Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. The Journal of Marketing, pp. 1-22

Keller, K.L. (1998), Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ

Kramer, M. (2017) ‘Brand purpose: The navigational code for growth’, Journal of Brand Strategy, 6(1), pp. 1–9.

Anderson, J. R. (1983). A spreading activation theory of memory. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 22(3), 261-295.

Bambauer Sachse, S., Hüttl, V., & Gierl, H. (2011). Can advertising elements improve consumer evaluations of brand extensions with a moderate or low fit? Psychology
and Marketing, 28(2), 205-218.

Bottomley, P. A., & Doyle, J. R. (1996). The formation of attitudes towards brand extensions: Testing and generalising Aaker and Keller’s model. International Journal of
Research in Marketing, 13(4), 365-377.

Bottomley, P. A., & Holden, S. J. S. (2001). Do we really know how consumers evaluate brand extensions? Empirical generalizations based on secondary analysis of
eight studies.
Sensitivity: Internal
6MK500
Week 11 Lecture:
Quiz & Writing Your
Supporting Statement
C h r i s s i e Ro w e l l
Sensitivity: Internal
Test your
knowledge
on popular
culture and
brand
theory!
End of
module
fun
quiz!
• Get into teams of 2 or 3
• One person in each team visit: kahoot.com on a phone
and click ‘play’ in the top right hand corner
• Wait for the game pin…
Sensitivity: Internal
Assessment
Assignment
Submission Date
Theme Board (60%)
Each individual student will submit a theme board. The theme board
should have between 10 minimum and 12 maximum frames. The
theme board should use frameworks and concepts of branding to examine
the link between a chosen celebrity and chosen brand.
Supporting Statement (40%)
Each individual student will submit a covering report. This should
Each individual student will submit a supporting report. This should be
useful to explain,
discuss and evaluate your strategy and rationale. The word limit for this is
up to 1000 words, +/- 10%.
Sensitivity: Internal
Tuesday 3rd May
2023, 11.00AM
Tues 23rd May
2023, 11.00AM
 Overall word limit 1000 words +/- 10%
CLARIFICATION
ON THE
 Introduction = 200 words
 Main body (exploration, discussion and rationale of
the celebrity/brand pairing) = 600 words
SUPPORTING
 Conclusions = 200 words
STATEMENT
 References (to include models used on the theme
board, not included in Word count)
4
Sensitivity: Internal
 The covering statement provides an
additional narrative to the theme board
TIPS FOR THE
SUPPORTING
STATEMENT
 It enables you to further justify and
critically evaluate your decision making
process for the brand/celebrity pairing
 Use it to provide additional clarity to the
theme board
 Use it as an opportunity to add value to
the theme board
 It MUST be critical and not simply
descriptive
Sensitivity: Internal
5
What is the Purpose of the supporting statement
?
• To demonstrate your understanding of the chosen brand
• To demonstrate your strategic decision making process
• To discuss and evaluate how the chosen celebrity adds value and influences the
customer decision making process
• To include academic referencing and underpinning in Harvard style
Sensitivity: Internal
What to include in specific sections?

Introduction should introduce the brand and celebrity and briefly justify the link

Findings/main body should:

Discuss the link between the business brand and celebrity brand

Discuss how the business and celebrity brand might influence one specific and defined target segment

Discuss how the business and celebrity brand personalities relate to a typical individual from the target segment

Discuss how the business and celebrity brand might project attributes of added value

Discuss the business brand purpose and how the celebrity helps to communicate this
Sensitivity: Internal
What to include in specific sections?

Conclusion should briefly summarise the key implications from the findings

References full source of citations used in the cover statement (and theme board) using the Harvard Referencing
System
Sensitivity: Internal
Some other Tips
• Write the cover statement in the third person
• Proof read and spell check your work thoroughly
• Think about the presentation, layout and flow
• Consider using snapshots of your themeboard or images to support
your discussion
• Use clear headings, sub-headings and page numbers
• Draft your key ideas and structure on paper first
• Avoid writing in a descriptive mode
• Write with purpose, in a ‘why’ mode
Sensitivity: Internal
Supporting statement check list – Have you?










Stuck to the overall word limit 1000 words +/- 10%
Given the covering statement a clear title?
Written an introduction? (200 words)
Written the main body/findings section which covers the main areas from the brief (600 words)?
Written a clear conclusion (200 words)?
Added a references page in Harvard referencing style (NOT INCLUDED IN WORD COUNT)
Written in third person, formal and academic style?
Thoroughly proofed your work?
Been as critical and persuasive as you possibly can be?
Made sure your cover statement is a clear reflection of your learnings?
Sensitivity: Internal
FAQs
◉Do I have to talk about all the frames/models in the cover
statement? No, just refer to the ones that help you to make your point
◉What does ‘critical’ actually mean? It means to write in a
questioning, explorative way, rather than simply describing.
◉Does my supporting statement need to flow in the same way as
the theme board? No, since you will not to refer to every section, you
can mention chosen aspects of the board in any order.
◉Do I need to critique each model? No, just choose key models that
assist in supporting your points
◉Do I need to refer to the theme board in my supporting
statement? You don’t have to but it may help you to address the areas
for discussion. You can use snapshots of it too if you like.
Sensitivity: Internal
Thanks!
Any questions?
Sensitivity: Internal
12
Underpinning and referencing are
crucial
for CW2!
We’ll be sourcing some crucial
underpinning for CW2 in the seminars.
See you there!
Sensitivity: Internal
T
H
I
S
I
S
T
H
E
F
O
O
T
E
R
13
6MK500
Lecture 9: Brand Heritage
Chrissie Rowell
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Lecture Summary
Brand
Heritage
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand
Stewardshi
p
Brand
Heritage
and
Distinction
s
What is Heritage?
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
What is Heritage?
Heritage is a
connection to the
past…
Sensitivity: Internal
What is Heritage?
 Brand Heritage: an emerging and ever evolving concept
 Basic component of a brand’s image
“heritage is an increasingly important value driver for brands as their early
roots add authenticity to the brand, thus allowing them to differentiate
themselves from competitors”
(Aaker, 2004. pg. 42)
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Heritage
“…the more characteristics in a brand, the more
likely the brands have a high heritage quotient (HQ)”
(Urde, 2007)
8
Sensitivity: Internal
Defining Brand Heritage
“Heritage is an important tool for
brand marketers, as it adds depth,
authenticity, and credibility to the brand’s
perceived value.”
Adapted from: Wiedmann, Hennigs, Schmidt, & Wuestefeld (2011)
Sensitivity: Internal
To understand the principle…
A:
Sensitivity: Internal
B:
Defining Brand Heritage
“Heritage drives value for a brand, because a
brand is more authentic when its personality
comes from its roots. It is the legacy of a
brand.”
Adapted from: Aaker, 2004
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Heritage is different to
Heritage Brands
Heritage brands highlight the fact that heritage is
part of their identity and value proposition.
Brand heritage is simply a concept that
strategically embraces the past, present and
future in unity.
Adapted from: Balmer &
Burghausen 2015
Sensitivity: Internal
Examples of Heritage Brands
Sensitivity: Internal
Putting Brand Heritage into
Perspective
“It used to be that we all looked for brands we knew and
trusted, based on what they had come to mean over the
years – brands that had been around for generations. Ones
we could count on. Steady-as-a-rock permanence.
This was a guarantee of quality, of integrity, of service and
expertise built up over decades of experience. Now, Apple,
PayPal and Amazon have heritage. We live in a world where
what once took 200 years to earn now takes less than 20.”
Sensitivity: Internal
(Clark, 2015)
Heritage for new brands?
Sensitivity: Internal
Placing Brand
Heritage
Brand
equity
Brand
heritage
These are all tightly interlinked.
Brand
image
(Blomback and Scandelius, 2013)
Sensitivity: Internal
In this model, the 3 aspects of ‘brand’
continually feed into the next, in a cycle
that gives the brand its constantly
evolving ‘identity’.
The Elements of Brand
Heritage
Track Record
History
important
to identity
Sensitivity: Internal
(Urde, 2007)
Longevity
Brand
Stewardship
Use of symbols
Core values
Track Record
• An unwritten contract between brand and
consumer
• Does it consistently deliver on promises?
• Perception and expectations of brand performance
• Analyse the track record of your chosen brand!
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Longevity
• Ability to transcend changing times
• How has the brand evolved?
• Is it still relevant?
• Does it mean compromising on core values?
• Analyse the longevity of your chosen brand!
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Why does Heinz carry
Longevity?
Sensitivity: Internal
Core Values
• Intrinsic attributes – values that permeate the brand
• Shape the internal strategies and objectives
• Externally communicated to the customers
• Are they still relevant or realistic?
• Analyse the core values of your brand!
Sensitivity: Internal
NEVER KNOWINGLY UNDERSOLD
Sensitivity: Internal
Use of Symbols
• Extrinsic attributes – bring your brand to life
• Logos, colors, uniform, tagline, rituals
• Have the symbols evolved?
• Analyse the symbols of your brand!
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
History Important to Identity
• Historical stance taken by the brand
• Becomes important internally and externally
• Patterns develop
• Analyse the history of your brand!
Sensitivity: Internal
Benetton – history of
controversy
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Stewardship
• Guarding the brand – the brand itself is bigger than the
organisation
• Thinking of brand as a culture
• Ability to cultivate the brand – Whitbread cultivated
Costa Coffee before selling to Coca Cola. Good brand
stewardship increases value
• Analyse the leadership of your brand!
Sensitivity: Internal
Break – 15
minutes
Please be back on
time!
Sensitivity: Internal
Examples of Brands Connecting to their Heritage
31
Sensitivity: Internal
…Heritage is a
Sensitivity: Internal
STORYTELLING DEVICE, effective
narratives can be formed
out of it
32
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Heritage Storytelling: Popularity

The economic climate is uncertain.
There’s an increasing distrust

Quality & authenticity are becoming key
selling points

There’s a desire for “real” & deeper
connections.
Sensitivity: Internal
Heritage:
Storytelling
 Use a persona from your past
 Use your original purpose
 Refer to your origin
37
Sensitivity: Internal
Heritage: Storytelling
 Use a persona from
your past
 Use your original
purpose
 Refer to your origin
Sensitivity: Internal
38
“One hundred years ago Michael Marks, my grandfather, an immigrant from Lithuania, set up his stall in
Leeds Open Market with £5 loaned him. I do not suppose that either foresaw what that market stall
would become by 1984, one hundred years later. They established a philosophy and principles which
have been the foundations on which Marks and Spencer has been built and to which it owes its
success and reputation. Teddy Sieff succeeded my father, and I followed Teddy as Chairman; we built
on the principles our predecessors had established.
The main principles were and are:
1. To offer our customers a selected range of goods of high quality and good value.
2. To work in close co-operation with our suppliers to develop this catalogue.
3. Always buy British providing the goods our British suppliers produce represent high quality and good
value.
4. To develop and maintain good human relations with our staff, our suppliers, and our customers.’’
(M&S Annual Report, 1984: Excerpt 31)
Sensitivity: Internal
Marks and Spencer
“We have tapped into the values and qualities that customers traditionally associated with our brand but
tended to be obscured in recent years. We have succeeded not by inventing a new Marks and Spencer but
by discovering the fundamental strengths of the past and making them relevant to the present.”
(M&S Annual Report, 2002)
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Summary…

We have explored the varying factors of Brand Heritage
 Applied key dimensions as stated by Urde et al (2007)
 We have explored the importance of Brand Heritage
 We have discussed how brand heritage can be leveraged
Sensitivity: Internal
Your themeboard must cover the learning outcome for CW1:
Apply a range of branding concepts and techniques to evaluate:
◉Brand identity
◉Brand personality
◉Brand architecture
◉Brand positioning
◉The nature of popular culture
Don’t forget to make your chosen celebrity prominent on the themeboard. Create one
frame about your celebrity. Introduce them, include one or more photos and discuss
their persona and suitability.
10 – 12 frames in total!
(References can be in the PowerPoint presentation, they don’t need to
be on the themeboard)
Sensitivity: Internal
When did we talk about that?
Models you could use in your themeboard and where to find them
Model:
Dealt with
in depth:
Model:
Dealt with in
depth:
Model:
Dealt with in
depth:
Maslow Hierarchy of
Needs
Lecture 2
Brand Purpose Model
Lecture 3
Brand Desirability
Lecture 6
The Brand System
Lecture 2
Brand Resonance
Model
Lecture 4
Customer Value/Levels of Product
Lecture 7
Attributes of an Agile
Brand
Seminar 2
Customer
Personas/Empathy
Maps
Lecture 4
Brand Identity Prism
Lecture 8
Positioning/Perception
Maps
Lecture 3
Dimensions of
Celebrity
Endorsement
Lecture 5
Ideals for Brand Identity
Lecture 8
Basic Framework of
Positioning
Lecture 3
Principles of Influence
Lecture 5
Brand Heritage Model
Lecture 9
4Cs of Effective
Positioning
Lecture 3
Meaning Transfer
Model
Lecture 5
Choose your frameworks to cover all
aspects of learning outcome 1
Brand Typologies &
Lovemarks
Lecture 3 & 6
Elaboration Likelihood
Model
Lecture 5
Don’t forget you can include other
suitable frameworks from your
research if you like!
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
See you in the
seminars!
Sensitivity: Internal
References
 Aaker, D. A. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(3), 347–356.
 Arnould, E. J., & Price, L. L. (2000). Authenticating acts and authoritative performances: Questing for self and
community. In S. Ratneswar, D. G. Mick, & C. Huffman (Eds.), The why of consumption: Contemporary perspectives on
consumer motives (pp. 140–163). New York: Routledge.
 Bagozzi, R. P., Baumgartner, J., & Yi, Y. (1989). An investigation into the role of intentions as mediators of the attitude–
behavior relationship. Journal of Economic Psychology, 10(1), 35–62.
 Bearden, W. O., Netemeyer, R. G., & Teel, J. E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal
influence. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(4), 473–481
 Beverland, M. B., Farrelly, F., & Quester, P. (2006). Brand-personal values fit and brand meanings: Exploring the role
individual values play in ongoing brand loyalty in extreme sports subcultures. Advances in Consumer Research, 33(1),
21–27.
 Beverland, M. B., Lindgreen, A., & Vink, M. W. (2008). Projecting authenticity through advertising: Consumer
judgments of advertisers’ claims. Journal of Advertising, 37(1), 5–15.
 Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equation models with latent variables. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Boyle, D. (2003).
Authenticity: Brands, fakes, spin and the lust for real life. London: Flamingo.
 Brown, S., Kozinets, R. V., & Sherry, J. F. (2003). Teaching old brands new tricks: Retro branding and the revival of
brand meaning. Journal of Marketing, 67(3), 19–33.
Sensitivity: Internal
References
 Brown, S., Kozinets, R. V. & Sherry JR, J. F. (2003), Teaching old brands new tricks: Retro branding and the
revival of brand meaning, Journal of Marketing, pp 19-33
Urde M. (1994), Brand orientation–a strategy for survival, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol 11, pp 18-32
 Urde, M. (1999), Brand orientation: a mindset for building brands into strategic resources. Journal of Marketing
Management, Vol 15, pp 117-133
 Wiedmann, K. P., Hennigs, N., Schmidt, S. & Wuestefeld, T. (2011a), Drivers and Outcomes of Brand Heritage:
Consumers’ Perception of Heritage Brands in the Automotive Industry, The Journal of Marketing Theory and
Practice, Vol 19, pp 205-220
 Wiedmann, K. P., Hennings, N., Schmidt, S. & Wuestefeld, T. (2011b.), The importance of brand heritage as a
key performance driver in marketing management, Journal of Brand Management, Vol 19, pp 182-194
Sensitivity: Internal
6MK500
Lecture 7: Adding Value and Brand Narratives
Chrissie Rowell
Sensitivity: Internal
Lecture Summary
Product and
Brand
Strategy
Sensitivity: Internal
Positioning a
Brand
Brand
Narratives
What is the concept of Added
Value?
Sensitivity: Internal
What is the concept of Added
Value?
“Successful brands are differentiated
because of their added values which go
beyond satisfying a core need and offer
augmented benefits. In addition, those
added values which are more sustainable
are those intangible psychological
values, inherent in the brand’s essence.”
(Chernatony, Harris and Dall’Olmo Riley, 2000)
Sensitivity: Internal
Its not just about
the product, but
the whole brand
and experience
of consumers
What is the concept of Added
Value?
“Successful brands are differentiated
because of their added values which go
beyond satisfying a core need and offer
augmented benefits. In addition, those
added values which are more sustainable
are those intangible psychological
values inherent in the brand’s essence.”
(Chernatony, Harris and Dall’Olmo Riley, 2000)
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
The Four Categories of Customer Values
•Functional – the qualities of the brand, product, or service
•Emotional – the way the brand makes the customer feel
•Life-Changing – the way the brand alters the life of the
customer
•Social Impact – the way the brand alters the life of others
(Source: Almquist, Senior and Bloch 2016)
https://hbr.org/2016/08/the-30-things-customers-really-value
Sensitivity: Internal
Examples of Brands appealing to Customer
Values
Sensitivity: Internal
Functional
Emotional
Lifechanging
Social Impact
Brand versus Product
(Level of Product Model)
Levitt (1980) defines 5 levels of a product:
1. Core benefit level
2. Generic product level
3. Expected product level
4. Augmented product level
5. Potential product level
Sensitivity: Internal
10
Future features that will keep your
customers interested (instill loyalty)
Extras that differentiate the product
from its competitors
What buyers normally expect and
agree to when they purchase a
product
A version of the product containing
only those attributes or characteristics
absolutely necessary for it to function
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Positioning
“How a brand is positioned in the mind
of the consumer with respect to the
values with which it is differentially
associated or ‘owns’”
(Ries and Trout 1982, Marsden 2000)
Sensitivity: Internal
Why Brands need Positioning
 Positioning is competitive
 Too many choices available today
 Products increase customer choice; brands simplify it
 The aim of positioning is to identify, and take possession
 Positioning is competition-oriented
Sensitivity: Internal
What is Brand Positioning?
 Positioning is owning a piece of consumer’s mind
 Positioning is not what you do to a product
 It’s what you do to the mind of the prospect
 It’s incorrect to call it Product Positioning
Sensitivity: Internal
(Ries & Trout 2000)
Brand Positioning
 Points-of-parity (POPs)
Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other
brands
 Points-of-difference (PODs)
Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate,
and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Positioning
 Points-of-parity (POPs)
 Points-of-difference (PODs)
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Positioning
 Points-of-parity (POPs)
 Points-of-difference (PODs)
BUT…IN RECENT RESEARCH A NEW DIMENSION HAS EMERGED
 Points-of-Wow (POWs)
 Red Bull Stratos – Space Diving Project
2016;2018)
Sensitivity: Internal
(Brown,
Sensitivity: Internal
It’s about
the
brand,
not the
product
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
BREAK TIME
15 minutes – please don’t be
late!
Sensitivity: Internal
Developing a Brand Narrative
Sensitivity: Internal
What is a Brand Narrative?
“Brand narrative is the story of the
ideas, experiences, and values that
represent the tangible, authentic depth
and integrity of the brand’s emotional
relationship with its consumer”
(Mootee, 2013)
Sensitivity: Internal
‘‘When it comes to creating a
powerful brand narrative, the
persona – the articulated form
of the brand’s character and
personality – comes first.”
(Herskovitz and Crystal, 2010, p.22)
Sensitivity: Internal
The need for – Brand Narratives
“Brand narratives can be viewed as
a powerful conveyer of meaning in
messages to audiences, which
involves consumers in the
representation of the brand by
active dialogues”
(Visconti, 2010, pg. 255)
Sensitivity: Internal
“Enduring loyalty
will not come
from transforming
the product
category, but
must be rooted in
the engagement
of audiences in
salient, social
narratives.”
Sensitivity: Internal
Dahlén, M., Lange, F. and Smith, T., (2009). Marketing communications: A
brand narrative approach. Wiley.
Sensitivity: Internal
Blending narratives and
popular culture
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Narrative: Dimensions
A word of caution…
“Announcements by the companies that own Aunt Jemima pancake mix, Uncle Ben’s
rice, Eskimo Pies ice cream bars, and many others, that they will be “retiring” brand
names and visual identities that are considered offensive to many is just one more
reminder of how “entangled” brands and consumers have become.” (Forbes, 2020)
Sensitivity: Internal
Summary

Value is created in both tangible and intangible ways. Brand value is largely
intangible

Narratives forge a strong bond with audiences

Narratives are bound in strategic and tactical dialogues

Consumers can co-create, disseminate and advocate communications about
brands
Sensitivity: Internal
Next Lecture
Developing brand identity
Reading:
Core Text:
De Chernatony (2012) – Chapter 6
Sensitivity: Internal
References
Arvidsson, A. (2007). Brands: Meaning and value in media culture. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
Escalas, J.E. (2004), ‘‘Narrative processing: building consumer connections to brands’’, Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol.
14 Nos 1/2, pp. 168-80
Dahlen, M, Lange, F and Smith, T (2009) Marketing Communications: A Brand Narrative Approach, Wiley and Sons
Herskovitz, S. and Crystal, M. (2010) ‘The essential brand persona: storytelling and branding’, The Journal of business strategy,
31(3), pp. 21–28.
Kapferer JN. (2012) The New Strategic Brand Management: Advanced Insights and Strategic Thinking, Kogan Page
Marsden, P., (2000). ‘Brand selection, naturally: A case study’. Proceedings of the Market Research Society Conference March
2000.
Ries, A., and Trout, J., (1982). Positioning: The Battle for your Mind. New York: Warner Books.
Wolstonholme, B. (2008), ‘‘Brand narrative: the never ending story’’, Brand Strategy, Vol. 36, March 7
Sensitivity: Internal
6MK500
Lecture Four: How do Consumers Choose
Brands?
Chrissie Rowell / Nofisat Ayantola
Sensitivity: Internal
Lecture Summary
Brand
Proliferation
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand
Resonance
Customer
Profiling
Brand Proliferation

Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Proliferation
Proliferation is the multiplying of products and lines within
a brand’s architecture, often caused by large
conglomerates buying up smaller brands. It can cause:

Media fragmentation

Loss of differentiation

Increased costs to stay ahead

Greater accountability for marketers as competition is
fierce
Sensitivity:
Internal
Since we have noted…
 Complexity in brand offerings
 Marketing communication options have significantly
increased
 The marketplace is overcrowded
 How do we ‘appeal’ to customers…?
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Resonance…
Sensitivity: Internal
Ra
tio
n
Keller (1998)
Sensitivity: Internal
al
on
oti
Em
al
The six building blocks of the brand resonance model
The Target Market
Markets have Segments
Demographic
Behavioural
Psychographic
Geographic
Sensitivity: Internal
Shopping
pattern
Geodemographics
Needs and
aspirations
Media
consumption
habits
Sensitivity: Internal
Persona
elements
Hobbies and
interests
Values and
beliefs
Experian (2018) Thinkbox (2018) YouGov (2017)
Customer Profile Example
Name: Nicola
Age: 31
Ocupation: Part-time admin assistant, Mother
Household Members: Jonathan (husband, 34)
and Luke (child, 4).
Houshold Income: £50,000
Interests: Digital products, keeping fit, and
recreational activities
Buying Behaviour: Prefers branded products,
online shopping, conscious about ethical
implications
Media Habits: Watches Love Island, Paw
Patrol, reads Daily Mail, is a customer of Virgin
Media
Sensitivity: Internal
Consumers can NOT
remember every single
brand
 There are a small number of alternatives in the customers’
choice set (the evoked set)
 Marketers must focus on getting their brands in the
choice set
 Consumers might not give rejected brands a second
chance
Sensitivity: Internal
The Case for Customer Profiling
 To get customer insights
 To put yourself in the customer’s head
 To see the world from the customer’s eyes
 To understand the context of their choices
 To form a rich picture
Sensitivity: Internal
What Does your Customer See?
Sensitivity: Internal
What Does your Customer Hear?
Sensitivity: Internal
What Does your Customer Think?
Sensitivity: Internal
What does your customer Say and
Do?
Sensitivity: Internal
UNDERSTANDING THE CUSTOMER
JOURNEY
STAGE
ONE
STAGE
TWO
STAGE
THREE
STAGE
FOUR
STAGE
FIVE
Sensitivity: Internal
• Need Recognition
• Problem Awareness
• Information Search
• Evaluation of Alternatives
• Purchase
• Post Purchase Evaluation
(Cox et al, 1983; Bruner, 1993; Solomon, 2006; Neal and
Quester 2006)
17
Factors to Consider in the Buying Behaviour
Process
Noise
Non
Linear
Choice
Overload
Context
Sensitivity: Internal
Customer
Empathy Maps…
Sensitivity: Internal
Pains and Gains
Sensitivity: Internal
Customer Empathy Map
Sensitivity: Internal
Session Overview
 Brand proliferation and the need to understand the customer
journey
 Customer profiling and its benefits for brand managers
 How to apply the brand resonance model, empathy maps and
personas to the assignment
Sensitivity: Internal
Next Lecture: Session 4
Celebrity Endorsers
Reading:
Core Text:
De Chertatony (2012) – Chapter 3 and 4
Sensitivity: Internal
References

Chernatony, L., McDonald, M., and Wallace, E., (2012) Creating Powerful Brands, 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann

De Chernatony. L. and Cottam. S. (2008) “Interactions between organisational cultures and corporate brands”, Journal of
Product & Brand Management, Vol. 17, Vol . 1, pp.13 – 24

Keller, K.L. (2016) Reflections on customer-based brand equity: perspectives, progress, and priorities. AMS Review, pp. 1-16.

Keller, K.L. (1993) Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. The Journal of Marketing, pp. 1-22

Keller, K.L. (1998), Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, Pearson Education, Upper
Saddle River, NJ.

Anderson, J. R. (1983). A spreading activation theory of memory. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 22(3), 261-295.

Bambauer Sachse, S., Hüttl, V., & Gierl, H. (2011). Can advertising elements improve consumer evaluations of brand extensions with a moderate
or low fit? Psychology and Marketing, 28(2), 205-218.

Bottomley, P. A., & Doyle, J. R. (1996). The formation of attitudes towards brand extensions: Testing and generalising Aaker and Keller’s model.
International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13(4), 365-377.

Bottomley, P. A., & Holden, S. J. S. (2001). Do we really know how consumers evaluate brand extensions? Empirical generalizations based on
secondary analysis of eight studies..
Sensitivity: Internal
6MK500
Lecture Five: Celebrity Endorsers
Chrissie Rowell / Nofisat Ayantola
Sensitivity: Internal
Lecture Summary
What is a
Celebrity
Endorser?
Sensitivity: Internal
Determinants
of an Endorser
ELM and
Meaning
Transfer
Celebrity
Endorsers…
Sensitivity: Internal
ENDORSER
“An individual who enjoys public
recognition and who uses this
recognition on behalf of a consumer
good by appearing with it in an
advertisement”
(McCracken, 1989)

Sensitivity: Internal
INFLUENCERS VS CELEBRITY ENDORSERS
“…Influencers are experts or
personalities with a more narrow
reach and a deeper impact…”
(AMA, 2001)

Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-ar
ts-47573135

Sensitivity: Internal
Why are endorsers used by brands?
‘A brand may identify an influencer
who has a specific audience they’re
trying to reach, and pay to appear on
their social media feeds in the same
way they’d previously have paid for
magazine advertisements’

Sensitivity: Internal
Dimensions of Celebrity
Endorsement
(Adapted from Priyankara et al 2017; Khan et al 2018)
Attractiveness
Credibility
Trustworthiness
Expertise
Sensitivity: Internal
Cialdini’s 6 Principles of Influence
Liking
Commitment
Authority
Influence
Social Proof
Sensitivity: Internal
Scarcity
(Source: Cialdini 2009 – Influence: Science and Practice
Reciprocity
How these apply to using Endorsers in
Marketing?
Factor of influence
What does it mean?
How does it apply to
influencer marketing?
Liking
Persuaded by others we
like
Why will the target
market like the
influencer?
Commitment
We are committed to
goals or causes
Is the influencer
committed to similar or
positive goals?
Authority
People will tend to obey
authority figures
Is the influence credible?
Sensitivity: Internal
How these apply to using Endorsers in
Marketing?
Factor of influence
What does it mean?
How does it apply to
influencer marketing?
Social Proof
People will do things that
they see other people are
doing
Does the influencer
appeal to a critical mass?
Scarcity
Aspire to have things that
are rare
Are the influencer’s
achievements rare or
aspirational?
Give back to somebody
who gave you something
How does the influencer
give back to causes?
Reciprocity
Sensitivity: Internal
What Endorsers are used by Brands?
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
The Meaning Transfer Model
Endorsement
Culture
Endorser
The world of the
consumer: in their
eyes, how does the
endorser embody their
values and
aspirations?
Sensitivity: Internal
Consumption
Endorser
Endorser and the
product synergy: how
does the celebrity
align with the product
or brand?
(Adapted from McCracken 1989)
The synergy resonates
with the target
consumers, enhancing
their desire to ‘feel’ a
certain way, believing
that the product will
help them achieve this.
Specialist
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL:
ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL
Sensitivity: Internal
(Petty and Cacioppo 1981, Clow and Baack,
2018)
20
Jennifer Aniston for Smart Water
Sensitivity: Internal
Anthony Joshua for Under Armour
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Helen Mirren for L’Oreal
David Beckham for Haig Whisky
Sensitivity: Internal
Johnny Vegas for PG Tips
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Justin Bieber for Calvin Klein
Sensitivity: Internal
Serena Williams for Nike
George Clooney for Nespresso
Sensitivity: Internal
Owen Wilson for Sofology
Sensitivity: Internal
Credibility: Do celebrities ‘really’ care about what they’re promoting?

Sensitivity: Internal
Celebrity Brand Decision Grid (adapted from Denier & Kapferer, 2012)
Sensitivity: Internal
Session Overview
 For assignment: Determinants of Endorser
 For assignment: ELM, Meaning Transfer
Model
 What makes a good endorser?
Sensitivity: Internal
Week 6
Brand Emotions, Desires and Resonance
Reading:
Core Text:
De Chernatony (2012) – Chapter 5
Sensitivity: Internal
References
Caballero, M.J., Lumpkin, J. & Madden, C.D. (1989) Using physical attractiveness as an advertising tool: an empirical test
of attraction phenomenon. Journal of Advertising Research, 29 (4), pp. 16–23.
Campbell, D. (1957) Factors relevant to the validity of experiments in social settings.
Psychological Bulletin, 54 (July), pp. 297–312.
Chao, P., Wuhrer, G. & Werani, T. (2005) Celebrity and foreign brand name as moderators of country-of-origin effects,
International Journal of Advertising, 24 (2),pp. 173–192
Erdogan, B.Z., 1999. Celebrity endorsement: A literature review. Journal of marketing management, 15(4), pp.291-314.
Friedman, H.H. & Friedman, L. (1979) Endorser effectiveness by product type. Journal of Advertising Research,19 (5), pp.
63–71
Hasnain, T.M.S., Birla, M. and Khan, M.B. (2018) ‘Impact of celebrity’s credibility dimensions on consumer’s purchase
intentions’, Amity Journal of Marketing, 5(2), pp. 39–55.
Kapferer, J.-N. (2014) The New Strategic Brand Management: Advanced Insights and Strategic Thinking. Kogan Page
Publishers, p.94
Sensitivity: Internal
6MK500
Lecture 6: Brand Emotions, Desires and
Resonance
Chrissie Rowell
Sensitivity: Internal
Lecture Summary
Emotion in
Branding
Sensitivity: Internal
Lovemarks
Brand Desire
Theory
Today is going to get very emotional
Sensitivity: Internal
Brands and emotions
There is a school of thought in Marketing and Branding
that suggests “human beings are powered by emotion, not
by reason” (Sheehan, 2013)
NB: goes beyond just emotional appeals.
This shapes / reimagines the basis on which we build many of our branding
decisions – all models applied and approaches taken.
Sensitivity: Internal
Brands and emotions
Marketing, even something as simple as
the 4 P’s…
…assumes rationality as, if not the basis, at least a dominant
element in consumers/clients engaging with the brand…
Sensitivity: Internal
Brands and emotions
What would it look like, if
we were to base our
decisions around
branding, not on the
rational process that
underlies consumers’
decision-making and
engagement, but on their
emotional connection with
Sensitivity:
theInternal
brand?
Sensitivity: Internal
Not just loyalty, but other aspects as well –
heritage, history, cultural meaning, trust…
etc.
Sensitivity: Internal
Brands and emotions
There are models that help us understand
this:
• Keller’s (2003) Brand Resonance Model
• The Lovemarks Theory
• Brand Desire Model
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Resonance is King
Keller (1998)
Sensitivity: Internal
THE 3 BIG ISSUES IN BRANDING
How do brands go from salience to resonance and why is
resonance so difficult to achieve?
THE 3 BIG ISSUES IN BRANDING
Sensitivity: Internal
We don’t all see things, people, brands or anything for that
matter, in the same way.
IDIOSYNCRACIES
CONTEXTUAL
DIFFERENCES
CULTURAL
FACTORS
BELIEFS &
VALUES
THE 3 BIG ISSUES IN BRANDING
Sensitivity: Internal
Have brands forgotten how to be unique?
As marketers we can
tie ourselves in knots
over what we think the
customer wants,
sometimes to our
Think: is it better to be
perceived as acceptable
detriment.
but average by a large
group of consumers; or
loved by a smaller, more
connected and loyal
segment?
THE 3 BIG ISSUES IN BRANDING
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Typologies:
CLEAN SLATE – Unknown/little idea what they stand for
WEAK – Better known than clean slate/require major investment
LITTLE TIGER – Early adopter/niche
DEFENDER – Not strongest but not under duress
OLYMPIC – Champion/benchmark for others
CLASSIC – Leading but not great
SPECIALIST – Unsuitable for mass audience
FADING STARS – Overtaken by others
LOVEMARKS – Have strong functional, emotional and experiential appeal
(Source: Millward brown 2014, Saatchi & Saatchi 2017)
Sensitivity: Internal
The Lovemarks Theory
• ‘Lovemarks’ = marketing concept that is intended to
replace the ‘traditional’ idea of brands.
• The idea conceptualised and publicised by Roberts
(2004), claiming “Brands are running out of juice” in an
ever-increasingly competitive marketing environment
• He posits that love is what is needed to rescue brands.
(Roberts, 2004)
Sensitivity: Internal
Why Lovemarks?
• “ If you want people to take action—whether for
something momentous, like voting for a president, or
seemingly mundane, like buying one brand of facial
tissues over another—you need to appeal to their
emotions.” (Sheehan, 2013)
• “The essential difference between emotion and
reason, is that emotion leads to action while reason
leads to conclusions.” (Famous quote by neurologist Dr. Donald Calne )
Sensitivity: Internal
The Lovemarks Theory (Roberts, 2004)

Future Beyond Brands


• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
Great stories: past, present and future; taps into aspects like
dreams, myths and icons; and inspiration
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
Holt (2003), for the Harvard Business Review:
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
What would that look like with the help of a celebrity
influencer?
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
What would that look like with the help of a celebrity
influencer?
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
What would that look like with the help of a celebrity
influencer?
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality Lovemarks ask, “What does our brand smell like, taste like,
look like, sound like, and feel like?”
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
Lurpak does it best…
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
Lurpak does it best…
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
What would that look like with the help of a celebrity
influencer?
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
Commitment, empathy, and passion
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Intimacy parallels human intimacy and people form
relationships with brands in a similar way they establish
relationships with other people.
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
We want our brands to know us and be able to connect with
us on a deep, emotional level
The Lovemarks Theory
(Roberts, 2004)
• Three basic tenets of the Lovemarks theory:
1. Mystery
What would that look like with the help of a celebrity
influencer?
2. Sensuality
3. Intimacy
Sensitivity: Internal
We want our brands to know us and be able to connect with
us on a deep, emotional level
What is Brand Desire?
When a brand is considered particularly desirable and
attractive by a certain group of customers, we call it brand
desirability. It develops in the presence of a good value fit –
meaning when the values of consumers closely match
those of the brand.
Can you see the link with
celebrity influencers, in terms
of the value?
Sensitivity: Internal

Brand Trust (2020)
Brand Desire Model
There are many models and theoretical aspects, one that
is interesting to us: from UK brand consultancy Clear
They benchmarked the top 100 desirable brands against
international index the S&P 500 and came up with faceted
understanding of brand desire.
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Desire Model
Clear’s research segments people’s personalities based
on the brands they most desire, compared with how they
describe themselves.
Brands either play an aspirational role for people, or
they mirror a person’s own values and beliefs
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Desirability
(Clear Consultancy, 2011)
• Archetypes of brand desirability (against personality)
1. Cool hunters
2. Social butterflies
3. Badge-wearers
4. Responsible citizens
5. Respect commanders
According to the model,
consumers see themselves as
these personality types. Our
influencer would need to play
into or strengthen that.
…more on this in the seminar!
Sensitivity: Internal
Next Week: Lecture 7
Value and Positioning
Sensitivity: Internal
6MK500
Week 10: CW1 & Models Recap
Chrissie Rowell
Sensitivity: Internal
Assessment
Assignment
Submission Date
Theme Board Presentation (60%)
Each individual student will submit a themeboard, presented in a narrated,
Powerpoint slide deck. The theme board should have between 10 minimum and 12
maximum frames. The theme board should use frameworks, concepts of branding to
examine the link between a chosen celebrity and chosen brand. The recorded
presentation of the work should be max 10 minutes long.
Use this link for guidance on how to record your presentation:
Tues 2nd May
2023
11.00am
https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/videoplayer/embed/RWfvXC?pid=ocpVideo0-innerdiv-oneplayer&postJsllMsg=t
rue&maskLevel=20&market=en-us
Covering Statement (40%)
Each individual student will submit a covering report. This should Each
Individual students will submit a covering report. This should be useful to explain,
discuss and evaluate the theme board. This should be submitted along with your
theme board. The word limit for this is up to 1000 words, +/- 10%.
Sensitivity: Internal
Tues 23rd May
2023
11.00am
WHAT IS THE CONTEXT OF THE
ASSIGNMENT?
ONE
TWO
• Choose an existing brand
• Understand its past and present
• Establish the future direction of the
THREE brand
FOUR
• Choose an endorser for the brand
FIVE
• Evaluate the synergy between the
brand and chosen endorser
Sensitivity: Internal
You must meet the following learning
outcomes…
Apply a range of branding concepts and
techniques to evaluate:
 Brand identity
 Brand personality
 Brand architecture
 Brand positioning
 The nature of popular culture
Ensure the celebrity/influencer and brand
are not currently linked
 Poster format
 10 to 12 frames, means each frame is similar to one
slide
CLARIFICATION
ON THE THEME
BOARD
 Clearly sequence and title your frames
 Use the relevant models as discussed in lectures
 Feel free to use any relevant models from additional
readings also
 Use of balance of words, visuals, models and colours
 Use relevant package such as Publisher, Powerpoint,
Canva or one you are familiar with
Sensitivity: Internal
 Think of the colours and imagery your brand uses
 Develop some clear brand guidelines regarding
colour and theme
TIPS FOR THE
THEME BOARD
 Stick with these brand guidelines as you create the
theme board
 Sketch out the concept of the theme board first
 Think clearly about the story or journey you want
to take your client on
 Think clearly about the models that you want to
use
 It is both a creative and an academic expression
Sensitivity: Internal
How to perform a Brand Audit?
Creating an audit framework:
1). Clarity of positioning
2). How innovative is it in using brand values?
3). How distinct is the unique selling proposition (USP)?
4). How distinctive is its tone of voice?
5). How distinctive is it culture and brand personality?
6). What and how consistent is the perception amongst its target
market?
Sensitivity: Internal
Hierarchy of
Needs,
(Maslow, 1943)
Sensitivity: Internal
The Brand System
Visi
on
and
pur
pos
Core ebrand
values
Brand management
process: Top- down
Brand Personality Codes
Strategic Benefits and Attributes
Physical Nature
Typical Brand Actions
Kapferer, J.-N. (2014) The New Strategic Brand Management:
Advanced Insights and Strategic Thinking. Kogan Page Publishers.
Sensitivity: Internal
(Source: Kapferer 2012)
Brand perception
process: Bottom up
Basic Framework of Positioning
(Kapferer, 2014)
The Brand
for whom?
The Brand
for what?
Positioning a Brand
The Brand
– why?
Sensitivity: Internal
The Brand
against whom?
The 4Cs of Effective
Positioning
Clarity
(Jobber and Fahy, 2019)
Consistency
Do the brand elements represent the
brand accurately?
How clear is the message and the
proposition?
Is it free from confusion?
Does the customer know what to
expect?
Is the message being replicated
accurately across all integrated
platforms?
Is the tone of voice consistent?
Is the brand being represented
authentically across all touch points?
Credibility
Competitiveness
Does the message evoke a sense of
trust in the brand?
Can it follow through on its promises
without leading to an expectation
gap?
Are there any messages (external or
internal) that are eroding brand
trust?
Sensitivity: Internal
What is the brand competing on?
It’s not always price – brands can
compete on quality, service
standards, desirability, uniqueness,
innovation
And many more factors…
Brand Positioning/Perception Maps
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Typologies:
CLEAN SLATE – Unknown/little idea what they stand for
(Origin: Millward Brown 2014, Saatchi & Saatchi 2017)
WEAK – Better known than clean slate/require major investment
LITTLE TIGER – Early adopter/niche
DEFENDER – Not strongest but not under duress
OLYMPIC – Champion/benchmark for others
CLASSIC – Leading but not great
SPECIALIST – Unsuitable for mass audience
FADING STARS – Overtaken by others
LOVEMARKS – Have strong functional, emotional and experiential appeal
Mentioned in: Van Riel, C.B.M. and Fombrun, C.J. (2007) Essentials of corporate communication: Implementing
practices for effective reputation management. Routledge.
Sensitivity: Internal
Experian (2018) Thinkbox (2018) YouGov (2017)
Customer Profile Example
Name: Nicola
Age: 31
Ocupation: Part-time Work, Mother
Household Members: Jonathan (husband, 34)
and Luke (child, 3).
Houshold Income: £50,000
Interests: Digital products, keeping fit, and
recreational activities
Buying Behaviour: Prefers branded products,
online shopping, consious about ethical
implications
Media Habits: Location, Location, Location,
Paw Patrol, Daily Mail, Virgin Media
Sensitivity: Internal
Customer Empathy Map
Sensitivity: Internal
Attributes of an Agile Brand
(Landor Associates, 2015)
https://landor.com/the-agile-brand
Sensitivity: Internal
Dimensions of Celebrity
Endorsement
(Adapted from Priyankara et al 2017; Khan et al 2018)
Attractiveness
Credibility
Trustworthiness
Expertise
Sensitivity: Internal
Cialdini’s 6 Principles of Influence
Liking
Commitment
Authority
Influence
Social Proof
Sensitivity: Internal
Scarcity
(Source: Cialdini 2009 – Influence: Science and Practice)
Reciprocity
The Meaning Transfer Model
Endorsement
Culture
Endorser
The world of the
consumer: in their
eyes, how does the
endorser embody their
values and
aspirations?
Sensitivity: Internal
Consumption
Endorser
Endorser and the
product synergy: how
does the celebrity
align with the product
or brand?
(Adapted from McCracken 1989)
The synergy resonates
with the target
consumers, enhancing
their desire to ‘feel’ a
certain way, believing
that the product will
help them achieve this.
INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL:
ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL
Sensitivity: Internal
(Petty and Cacioppo 1981, Clow and Baack,
2018)
19
Brand Resonance Model
Keller (1998)
Sensitivity: Internal
THE 3 BIG ISSUES IN BRANDING
What is Brand Purpose?
(Kramer,
2017)
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Desirability
(Clear Consultancy, 2011)
• Archetypes of brand desirability (against personality)
1. Cool hunters
2. Social butterflies
3. Badge-wearers
4. Responsible citizens
5. Respect commanders
6. Safe players
Sensitivity: Internal
According to the model,
consumers see themselves as
these personality types. Our
influencer would need to play
into or strengthen that.
The Four Categories of Customer Values
Functional – the qualities of the brand, product, or service
Emotional – the way the brand makes the customer feel
Life-Changing – the way the brand alters the life of the
customer
Social Impact – the way the brand alters the life of others
(Source: Almquist, Senior and Bloch 2016)
https://hbr.org/2016/08/the-30-things-customers-really-value
Sensitivity: Internal
Sensitivity: Internal
Future features that will keep your
customers interested (instill loyalty)
Extras that differentiate the product
from its competitors
What buyers normally expect and
agree to when they purchase a
product
A version of the product containing
only those attributes or characteristics
absolutely necessary for it to function
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Identity Prism
Sensitivity: Internal
Kapferer, J.N., 2006.
Brand Identity Prism’.
Strategic Brand
Management, pp.154-155.
External or ‘social’ part
of the brand
Sensitivity: Internal
Internal or ‘inside soul’
of the brand
Sensitivity: Internal
9 Ideals of Brand Identity
(Giata, 2017)
Ghiață, L. (2017) ‘9 Brand Identity Ideals’,
11Digits, 29 March. Available at:
https://www.11digits.com/2017/03/29/9-bran
d-identity-ideals/
(Accessed: 31 March 2022).
Sensitivity: Internal
The Elements of Brand Heritage
Track Record
History
important
to identity
Brand
Stewardship
Use of symbols
Sensitivity: Internal
(Urde, 2007)
Longevity
Core values
Any questions…?
Sensitivity: Internal
Today’s seminars are for assignment
support!
Please attend if you have questions or a draft you want to
discuss. You are also welcome to use the session to work on
your themeboard if you wish.
Sensitivity: Internal
6MK500
Lecture Two: Brand Equity and The Branding
Process
Chrissie Rowell / Nofisat Ayantola
Sensitivity: Internal
Lecture Summary
The Brand
System
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Equity
The Branding
Process
Today’s focus: understanding the ‘brand’ and
how to analyse it
This is important to consider, since you will need to
understand your chosen brand inside out, before
you think about how to pair it with a celebrity
endorser.
Sensitivity: Internal
The Context of the Module
What is a Brand?
A brand is a cluster of functional and
emotional
values that enables organisations to make a
promise about a unique and welcomed
experience.
(Chernatony, McDonald and Wallace, 2012; 2015)
Sensitivity: Internal
Strategic Implications of Branding:
What does branding really mean?


Branding can be:

Tangible and intangible

Functional and hedonistic

Visible and invisible
Brand analysis:

What attributes materialise?

What advantages are created?

What benefits emerge?

What ideals does it represent?
Sensitivity: Internal
Functional or
Hedonistic?
Hierarchy of
Needs,
Maslow, 1943
Sensitivity: Internal
The Brand System
Brand management
process: Top- down
Visi
on
and
pur
pos
Core ebrand
values
Brand Personality Codes
Strategic Benefits and Attributes
Physical Nature
Typical Brand Actions
Sensitivity: Internal
(Source: Kapferer 2012)
Brand perception
process: Bottom up
The Brand System
Vision and Purpose

Number and types of products

How does the introduction of this brand
improve the status quo in the world?
Core Brand Values

Brand style (communication)

Internal identity
Sensitivity: Internal
Visio
n
and
purp
ose
Core brand values
The Brand System: Core Values

Core values are what support the vision, shape the culture and reflect what the company
values

They are the essence of a company’s identity

Core values help companies in the decision-making processes.
EXAMPLES:
Commitment – Committing to great product, service, and other initiatives that impact lives
within and outside the organisation
Community – Contributing to society and demonstrating corporate social responsibility
Innovation – Pursuing new creative ideas that have the potential to change the world
Integrity – Acting with honesty and honor without compromising the truth
Sensitivity: Internal
Vision, Purpose and Core Brand Values
Examples





Give Sustainably

Give Responsibly

Giving Partnerships

Identify Communities That Need Shoes

Give Shoes That Fit
Selling the highest quality natural and organic products
available
Caring about our communities and our environment
Creating ongoing win-win partnerships with our suppliers
Promoting the health of our stakeholders through healthy
eating education
Sensitivity: Internal
The
System
TheBrand
Brand
System
Brand Personality Codes

Associations that consumers have with the brand

Image a company tries to create for the brand

Product attributes such as the product categories
Vision
and
purpo
se
Core brand
values
Strategic Benefits and Attributes
Brand Personality Codes

Benefits consumers derive from the product

Overall vision

How these benefits and attributes are
communicated to consumers
Sensitivity: Internal
Strategic Benefits and Attributes
The Brand System: Strategic Benefits and
Attributes
Strategic Benefits and
Attributes:
 Safe
 Reliable
 Secure
 Dynamic
 Robust
Sensitivity: Internal
What would you say are the
Strategic Benefits of this
Brand?
Sensitivity: Internal
The Brand System
Physical Nature: Family Resemblance
– Uniformity

Resemblance of all the products and services

Each models
segments

Future brand or line extensions (longevity of
the brand)
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Personality
Codes
Semiotic Invariants
Strategic Benefits and
Attributes
Typical Brand Actions
positioning
Vi
si
on
an
d
pu
rp
os
Core brand
e
values
in
respective
Physical Nature: Family Resemblance
Typical Brand Actions
Break – 15 minutes
Please return on time!
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Equity…
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand Equity: Defined
“Brand equity is defined in
terms of the marketing effects
uniquely attributable to the
brand…”
(Keller, 1993, 1996, 2012, pg. 42)

Sensitivity: Internal
Customer-Based Brand Equity
“The differential effect that brand
knowledge has on consumer
response to the marketing of that
brand.”
(Keller, 1993, 2012)

Sensitivity: Internal
Why do brands need managing?
(Aaker, 1991)
Create
Sustain
Grow
Sensitivity: Internal
Brand
equity
Whitbread bought Costa Coffee in 1995
for £19m
Coca Cola bought Costa Coffee in 2020 for
£3.9bn
That’s a brand equity increase of
approximately £20m a year!
Sensitivity: Internal
Branding
Process…
Sensitivity: Internal
Branding Process
Step1
Brand Assessment
How is the brand
perceived today?
Sensitivity: Internal
Step 5
Brand Advantage
Step 2
Brand Promise
How will you enhance,
nurture and innovate the
brand?
What will define your
brand?
Step 4
Brand Culturalisation
Step 3
Brand Strategy
How will you create the
brand’s image
externally?
How will you manage and
position the brand?
Adapted from: Chernatony, McDonald and Wallace, 2014
How to perform a Brand Audit?
Creating an audit framework:
1). Clarity of positioning
2). How innovative is it in using brand values?
3). How distinct is the unique selling proposition (USP)?
4). How distinctive is its tone of voice?
5). How distinctive is it culture and brand personality?
6). What and how consistent is the perception amongst its target
market?
Sensitivity: Internal
Source: Landor Associates, 2015
Sensitivity: Internal
Attributes of an Agile Brand
Source: Landor Associates, 2015
‘The power of a brand lies in what
consumers have learnt (felt, seen,
heard) about a brand – and this
‘resides in the minds of the
consumer’
(Keller, 2012)

Sensitivity: Internal
Session Overview
 The branding process is an overarching
framework
 For assignment doing a brand audit is starting
point
 Chapter 1 and 2 of the text book
 Seminars this week – Are brands ageless?
Sensitivity: Internal
Next Lecture: Session 3
Brand Management and Purpose
Reading:
Core Text:
De Chertatony (2012) – Chapters 1 and 2
Sensitivity: Internal
References

Aaker, D.A. (1992) The value of brand equity. Journal of Business Strategy, 13 (4), pp. 27-32.

Aaker, D.A. (2004). “Leveraging the corporate brand”, California Management Review, Vol. 46, No. 3. pp. 6-18.

Chernatony, L., McDonald, M., and Wallace, E., (2012) Creating Powerful Brands, 4th Edition, ButterworthHeinemann

De Chernatony. L. and Cottam. S. (2008) “Interactions between organisational cultures and corporate brands”,
Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 17, Vol . 1, pp.13 – 24

Keller, K.L. (2016) Reflections on customer-based brand equity: perspectives, progress, and priorities. AMS
Review, pp. 1-16.

Keller, K.L. (1993) Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. The Journal of
Marketing, pp. 1-22

Keller, K.L. (1998), Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, Pearson
Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Urde, M. (1999) Brand orientation: A mindset for building brands into strategic resources. Journal of Marketing
Management, 15 (1-3), pp. 117-133.
Sensitivity: Internal

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

We offer the bestcustom writing paper services. We have done this question before, we can also do it for you.

Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.