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Define the term personality
Identify and describe the following components of the Psychodynamic theory of personality development: id, ego, superego along with the conscious, preconscious and unconscious levels of awareness

Describe the contributions made to the humanistic theory about self-actualization and the self-concept by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, including the significance of unconditional positive regard
Describe the contributions that Bandura and Rotter have made to the Social Learning perspective regarding self-efficacy and locus of control
Identify and describe the big 5 trait theory and how it is used for assessing personality. Do you believe this model of personality accurately measures our central and basic traits? Do you believe that these traits remain consistent over time? Support your response
Distinguish between objective and projective assessments of personality and give two examples of each type of assessment and how each would be used with potential clients
Discuss the significance of self-awareness and self esteem. Do you believe these impact our temperament? Support your response
Which model of personality do you believe is the most accurate assessment of personality origins? What specific components of this model appeals to you, and what changes would you make in order for this model to flourish? Support your response
If you were asked to generate a list of the traits that best describe you, followed by the traits that you find most ideal, how much consistency would you find? Do you believe that this accurately represents what Carl Rogers suggested about an inconsistent self-concept that exists in most of us? Explain your responses(lease make sure to add a brief description to each stage within the theoretical approach.)
part2)Please contribute something helpful, beneficial and/or interesting that you have found related to the topic of personality. Youtube video links, online articles, and other relevant materials are acceptable. your weekly discussion posts. In order to earn the full credit for your contribution, please remember to respond to at least two other posts within the thread.Discovering
Psychology
4th Edition
Chapter 12:
The Individual Mind
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Chapter Objectives (1 of 2)
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
Compare and contrast the psychodynamic, humanistic, trait, and
social–cognitive theories of personality.
Debate the validity of self-report inventories versus projective tests
as measures of personality.
Differentiate and illustrate several distinct aspects of self (selfconcept, self-awareness, self-esteem, and self-regulation) in
terms of their content, sources, and implications.
Analyze evidence for the biological bases of personality and the self.
Distinguish between the personal and interpersonal self, and relate
these to cultural differences in individualistic versus collectivistic
aspects of self-concept.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory of Personality
• Personality: Our characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and
behaving
• Psychodynamic: A theory put forward by Sigmund Freud in
which psychic energy moves among the compartments of the
personality: id, ego, and superego
• Psychoanalysis: Freud’s treatment approach based on his
psychodynamic theory
• Id: The component containing primitive drives present at birth
• Ego: The component that is the self that others see
• Superego: The component that internalized society’s rules for
right and wrong, or the conscience
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Freud’s Stages of Development
• Defense mechanism:
• A protective behavior that reduces anxiety
• Helps us channel potentially self-destructive or painful psychic
energy into more constructive or manageable behaviors
• Psychosexual stages:
• Freud was interested in how developing personality would deal
with sexual impulses of the id.
• Proposed five psychosexual stages of personality
development: Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
• Personality is the product of conflict during these psychosexual
stages.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Freud’s Levels of Conscious Awareness
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Neo-Freudians
• Neo-Freudians:
• Substitute social competence for sexuality and pleasure as
the major motivation for human behavior
• Alfred Adler: An inferiority complex can lead to
overcompensation, usually seeking appearance of superiority
rather than substance
• Carl Jung: Divided the unconscious mind into two
components, extroversion (outgoing) and introversion (less
outgoing)
• Karen Horney: Rejected Freud’s premise that women feel
inferior. Claimed men envied women’s ability to become
pregnant
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Knowledge Check Activity
According to Freud, which part of the mind operates
according to the pleasure principle, seeking
gratification and relief?
A. Id
B. Ego
C. Superego
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Knowledge Check Activity: Answer
According to Freud, which part of the mind operates according
to the pleasure principle, seeking gratification and relief?
A. Id
Freud proposed that the id, which literally means “it” in Latin, is
present at birth and contains the primitive drives that serve as a
source of energy for the personality, such as hunger, thirst, and
sex. Freud believed that the id operates according to the
pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification and relief. As
a child begins to interact with parents and other social
influences, the ego and the superego begin to control the id.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Humanistic Approaches to Personality
• Differed from behaviorism and psychodynamic approaches in
several ways:
• Considered humans as unique; therefore, research by
behaviorist was irrelevant
• Human nature basically good
• Felt psychodynamic theories placed too much emphasis on
abnormal behavior
• Studied why people succeed
• Observes that exceptional people shared several common traits
• More interested in how personality develops rather than the
actual characteristics that emerge
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Trait Theory
• Traits:
• Stable personality characteristics
• Intuitive realization that traits are
clustered together
• Central traits: Characteristics that clearly
define and differentiate a person; how you
might describe someone
• Allport used factor analysis to identify 16
major personality traits
• Each forms a continuum between
opposites (e.g., trusting at one extreme,
suspicious at the other)
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
The Big Five Theory (1 of 2)
• Identified five core traits:
• Openness: Those high in openness are curious,
unconventional, and imaginative. Interested in exploring life
different from their own. Those low in openness prefer the
familiar
• Conscientiousness: Incorporates competence, order,
dutifulness, achievement striving, self-discipline and
deliberation
• Extroversion: Warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness.
Can be insensitive and overbearing. Other end of spectrum
is introversion, characterized by coolness, reserve,
passivity, and caution. Tend to be sensitive and reflective
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
The Big Five Theory (2 of 2)
• Identified five core traits:
• Agreeableness: Includes trust,
straightforwardness, altruism,
compliance, modesty and tender
mindedness. Being low in this trait
characterized as cynical,
uncooperative, and rude
• Neuroticism: Combines anxiety,
angry hostility, depression, selfconsciousness, impulsivity, and
vulnerably. Opposite trait indicates
emotional stability
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Activity:
• How can the Big Five traits be used on the job? For parenting?
How? Do they provide the potential for understanding substance
abuse or cognitive decline? Why or why not?
• Do you know your own personality traits? To find out more about
where you fall on the trait continuum, take the short version of
the Big Five Inventory in the textbook.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
How Situations Affect Personality
• Social–cognitive learning theory:
• A theory of personality that features cognition and learning,
especially from the social environment, as important
sources of individual differences in personality
• Locus of control:
• The source of individual outcomes. External locus of control
sees outcomes as resulting from luck or chance. Internal
locus of control sees outcomes as the result of individual
effort
• Reciprocal determinism:
• Mutual influence of the person and the situation on each
other
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Biological Bases of Personality
• Biological theories of personality build bridges between observed
traits and underlying biological correlates.
• Temperament: A child’s pattern of mood, activity, or emotional
responsiveness linked to later personality
• Reactivity: Describes differences in responses to novel or
challenging stimuli
• Self- regulation: Ability to control attention and inhibit
responding to perceived stimuli
• Higher reactivity is characteristic of introversion and
neuroticism.
• Self-regulation is associated with later conscientiousness.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Genetics and Personality
• Six genetic loci that are significantly associated with the
Big Five traits:
• Also predictive of psychological disorders
• Studies often use the twin study method
• Big Five traits show an approximate heritability of 0.50 in
humans
• Other factors include environmental influences,
confronting experiences
• Research indicated that people can change personality traits
on purpose, but the change will be reflected in their relevant
behaviors.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
How We Assess Personality
• Observation is the most reliable means of making personality
judgments:
• Time consuming, expensive, and some aspects of personality
can be concealed

Standardized tests:
• They must be valid and reliable.
• Tests rely on self-reports, which can be influenced by a
person’s need to appear socially appropriate.
• Analysis from data on cell phones and social media provide
valid snapshots of real behavior.
• Use of algorithms to assess “likes” on Facebook turned out to
be more accurate than assessments made by people.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Personality Inventories
• Personality inventory:
• An objective test, often using numbered scales or
multiple choice, used to assess personality
• Generally perform well in terms of reliability and validity
• Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI):
Uses T/F responses
• Likert scales: Uses a range of numbers
• Projective tests: Derived direct from projection, based
on Freudian theory that provides an ambiguous stimulus
onto which test takers “project” their personality
(Rorschach Inkblot Test)
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Self-Concept (1 of 2)
• Self:
• Patterns of thought, feelings, and actions we perceive in our
own mind
• Incorporates history and personal knowledge, and provides
us with a past, present, and future
• Self-concept:
• People’s description of their own characteristics
• Self-schema:
• A cognitive organization that helps us think about the self and
process self-relevant information
• Self-awareness:
• Knowledge of your own internal traits, feelings, roles, and
memories
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Self-Concept (2 of 2)
• Self-consciousness:
• Awareness of our own characteristics and
the way the self is perceived by others
• We often overestimate how much
attention others pay to our behavior,
known as the spotlight effect
• Makes people behave more ethically
• Self-knowledge:
• Achieved through introspection, focus on
observable behaviors and contributions
from people around us
• Arises from autobiographical and episodic
memory
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Self-Esteem
• Self-esteem: A judgment of the value of the self
• Influenced by social comparisons
• Social media negatively correlated with self-esteem
• Those with high self-esteem tend to make downward comparisons,
comparing themselves to those they consider less worthy on a
particular dimension.
• Males tend to have an advantage over females in self-esteem.
• Self-esteem varies by race, with African Americans scoring higher
than white Americans.
• Collectivists cultures may override outward expressions of selfesteem:
• Culture sets the values by which people measure themselves.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Protecting Self-Esteem
• Self-enhancement: Those who performed poorly are the most
likely to engage in self-enhancement by inflating their opinions of
themselves.
• Self-handicapping: Protecting self-esteem before performance
takes place by building an excuse in advance because they might
fail
• Sandbagging: Letting everyone know how bad you are at
something, lowering their expectations
• Bask-in-reflected glory: Associating with others you admire
• People who engage in self-enhancement typically make good first
impression, but these impressions do not last.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Self-Regulation
• Self regulation: Conscious executive efforts to control our
thoughts, motives, feelings, and behaviors
• Deficits result in drug abuse, domestic violence, binge eating,
and other psychological disorders.
• Differences in self-regulation occur at a young age based on
brain activation while facing temptation.
• Higher activity in the prefrontal cortex is associated with an
individual’s ability to withstand temptation.
• We make distinctions between what is good for the current
self and what is good for the future self.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
The Social Self
• The interpersonal self:
• The self we are in the presence of other people
• Influences include significant others and the social group to
which the person belongs
• Significant others include family members, friends,
coworkers, and others the self interacts with
• When we interact with significant others, we experience the
relational self.
• Larger groups provide our collective self
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Cultural Influences
• Individualistic cultures:
• Emphasis on individualism and self-reliance
• Collectivist cultures:
• Interdependence, cooperation, and lack of conflict
• Two major differences based on culture
1. A person’s source of satisfaction
2. Sense of being similar to other group members
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Summary
Now that the lesson has ended, you should have learned:
• To compare and contrast psychodynamic, humanistic, trait or Big
Five, and social–cognitive theories of personality.
• To debate the validity of self-report inventories versus projective
tests as measures of personality.
• To differentiate and illustrate several distinct aspects of self in
terms of their content, sources, and implications.
• To analyze evidence for the biological bases of personality and
the self.
• To distinguish between the personal and interpersonal self, and
relate these to cultural differences in individualistic versus
collectivistic aspects of self-concept.
Cacioppo, Discovering Psychology, 4th Edition. © 2022 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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