MGT 672 SEU Module 6 Danones Wrangle with Wahaha Discussion

DescriptionBecause learning changes everything.®
International
Management:
Culture, Strategy, and
Behavior
Part Two: The Role of
Culture
Chapter 6: Organizational Cultures and
Diversity
© McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.
No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
The Nature of Organizational Culture
Organizational culture is the shared values and beliefs that enable
members to understand their roles in and the norms of the organization.
Characteristics of an organization’s culture.
• Observed behavioral regularities.
• Norms.
• Dominant values are shared.
• The MNC sets forth a philosophy about the
treatment of employees and customers.
• Rules dictate dos and don’ts.
• Organizational climate is important.
The major problem is if an MNC’s organizational
culture in one country’s facility differs sharply
from organizational cultures in other country’s
facilities.
© McGraw-Hill Education
In some cases
companies have
deliberately
maintained two
different business
cultures because
they do not want
one culture
influencing the
other.
2
Interaction between National and Organizational Culture
There is a widely held belief that organizational culture tends to moderate
or erase the impact of national culture.
• In fact, evidence is accumulating that just the opposite may be true.
Hofstede’s research found that the national cultural values of employees
have a significant impact on their organizational performance.
• And that the cultural values employees bring to the workplace are not
easily changed by the organization.
Hofstede provided the early database of a set of proprietary culturalanalysis techniques and programs known as DOCSA.
• Diagnosing Organizational Culture for Strategic Application.
© McGraw-Hill Education
3
Table 6-1: Dimensions of Corporate Culture
Access the text alternative for this image.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Source: Hoecklin, Lisa Adent. Managing Cultural Differences: Strategies for Competitive Advantage. England: Addison-Wesley, 1995, 145.
4
Figure 6-1: Europeans’ Perception of the Cultural Dimensions of
U.S. Operations (A) and European Operations (B) of the Same MNC
Different cultures often exist among
subsidiaries of the same MNC.
Such differences can reduce the
ability of units to work well
together.
Access the text alternative for these images.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Source: Hoecklin, Lisa Adent. Managing Cultural Differences: Strategies for Competitive Advantage. England: Addison-Wesley, 1995.
5
Cultural Interaction
This analysis is relevant to MNC alliances, showing that though an alliance
exists, the partners bring different organizational cultures with them.
Access the text alternative for this image.
© McGraw-Hill Education
6
Organizational Cultures in MNCs
When one company merges or acquires another:
• The two must establish the purpose, goal, and focus of the merger.
• Then develop mechanisms to identify important structures and roles.
• Then determine who has authority over necessary resources.
• Also identify all parties’ expectations and facilitate communication.
Three aspects important in determining MNC organizational culture:
• The general relationship between employee and organization.
• The hierarchical authority defining manager and subordinate roles.
• Employees views about the MNC’S purpose, destiny, goals, and their
place in them.
© McGraw-Hill Education
7
Figure 6-2: Organizational Cultures
When examining
dimensions of
organizational
culture,
Trompenaars
suggested the use of
two continua—one
distinguishes
between equity and
hierarchy; the other
examines orientation
to the person and the
task.
Access the text alternative for this image.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Source: Trompenaars, Fons. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Global Business. Illinois: Irwin Professional Pub, 1994.
8
Family Culture
Family Culture is characterized by a strong emphasis on hierarchy and
orientation to the person.
• Leader is regarded as a caring parent.
• Leaders are respected and looked to for
guidance and approval.
• Management assumes a paternal relationship.
• It is difficult for outsiders to become members.
• When done well, it can catalyze and multiply
the energies of the personnel.
• When done poorly, ineffective leaders drain
employee’s energies and loyalties.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Common in Turkey,
Pakistan,
Venezuela, China,
Hong Kong, and
Singapore.
This type of culture
is foreign to most
U.S. managers.
9
Eiffel Tower Culture
Eiffel tower culture is characterized by strong emphasis on hierarchy
and orientation to the task.
• Well defined jobs, employees know the task,
and everything is coordinated from the top.
• The top position could be replaced with no
effect on the work or on the organization.
• Relationships are specific, status lies in the job.
• The culture operates like a formal hierarchy—
impersonal and efficient.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Commonly found in
Denmark,
Germany, and the
Netherlands.
U.S expatriate
managers often
have difficulty
initiating change in
this culture.
10
Guided Missile Culture
Guided missile culture is characterized by strong emphasis on equality
in the workplace and orientation to the task.
• Work-oriented, in teams or project groups who
do whatever it takes to get the job done.
• The best form of synthesis must be used in the
course of working on the project.
• All team members are equal and all teams treat
each other with respect.
• Change comes quickly—teams are
reconfigured and assigned new objectives.
© McGraw-Hill Education
This fits well with
the national
cultures of the U.S.
and the U.K.
Motivation tends to
be more intrinsic
than just money
and benefits.
11
Incubator Culture
Incubator culture is characterized by strong emphasis on equality and
orientation to the person.
• They believe organizations are secondary to
the fulfillment of the individuals within them.
• Organizations are incubators for members’ selffulfillment—so their culture has little structure.
• Participants thrive on an intense, emotional
commitment to the nature of the work.
• Change is fast and spontaneous.
Found often among
start-up firms in
Silicon Valley or
Silicon Glen.
Motivation remains
highly intrinsic and
intense.
• Leadership is achieved, not gained by position.
© McGraw-Hill Education
12
Figure 6-3: National Patterns of Corporate Culture
Trompenaars and
his associates
created a
questionnaire
designed to identify
national patterns of
corporate culture,
results shown here.
Access the text alternative for this image.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Source: Adapted from Trompenaars, Fons, and Charles Hampden-Turner. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business,
2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998.
13
Figure 6-4: International Corporation Evolution
The effect of
multiculturalism
and diversity will
vary depending on
the stage of the
firm in its
international
evolution.
Access the text alternative for this image.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Source: Adler, Nancy J. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Cengage Learning, Inc., 2008.
14
Figure 6-5: Locations of International Cross-Cultural
Interaction
International cultural diversity traditionally affects neither the domestic
firm’s organizational culture nor its relationship with its customers/clients.
Access the text alternative fir this image.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Source: Adler, Nancy J. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Cengage Learning, Inc., 2008.
15
Domestic and Group Multiculturalism
You don’t need to do business in
another country to encounter
multiculturalism.
Culturally distinct populations can
be found within organizations.
Managers must consider
employees on an individual basis.
Managers need to compile
techniques that convey a common
message.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Homogenous group—members
have similar backgrounds and
generally perceive, interpret, and
evaluate events in similar ways.
Token group—all members but
one have the same background.
Bicultural group—two or more
members represent each of two
distinct cultures.
Multicultural group—there are
individuals from three or more
different ethnic backgrounds.
16
Potential Problems Associated with Diversity
Diversity may cause a lack of cohesion, resulting in idleness, unproductive
work, and the inability to be efficient or effective.
• These problems are rooted in people’s attitudes—such as mistrust.
Another potential problem is perceptual—when culturally diverse groups
come together, they often bring preconceived stereotypes with them.
• A related problem is inaccurate biases.
Still another potential problem with diverse groups is miscommunication or
inaccurate communication, which can occur for a number of reasons.
• Misunderstandings can be caused by a speaker using words that are not
clear to other members.
• Another contribution to miscommunication may be the way in which
situations are interpreted.
• Diversity also may lead to communication problems due to perceptions
of time.
© McGraw-Hill Education
17
Advantages of Diversity
Growing evidence shows diverse groups enhance creativity, lead to
better decisions, and result in more effective and productive performance.
• Group members come from a variety of cultures and are able to create
a greater number of unique (creative) solutions and recommendations.
• A second major benefit is that culturally diverse groups can prevent
groupthink.
• Multicultural diverse groups often avoid this problem as members
do not think similarly or feel pressure to conform.
• Diversity in the workplace enhances more than just internal
operations—it enhances relationships to customers as well.
• If the customer base is composed of many cultures, the company
may want to have representatives from corresponding nationalities.
© McGraw-Hill Education
18
Figure 6-6: Group Effectiveness and Culture
Multi-culturally diverse teams have a great deal of potential, depending
on how they are managed.
Access the text alternative for this image.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Source: Adler, Nancy J. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Cengage Learning, Inc., 2008.
19
Understanding the Conditions for Effectiveness
Multicultural teams are most effective when they face tasks requiring
innovativeness, and far less effective when assigned to routine tasks..
For greatest effectiveness, focus attention by the stage of team
development.
• In the entry stage, the focus should be on building trust and
developing team cohesion.
• In the work stage, attentions may be directed more toward describing
and analyzing the problem or task that has been assigned.
• In the action stage, focus shifts to decision making and implementing
and often requires consensus building among the members.
© McGraw-Hill Education
20
Using the Proper Guidelines
• Team members must be selected for their task-related abilities and not
solely based on ethnicity.
• Team members must recognize and be prepared to deal with their
differences.
• The team leader must help the group to identify and define its overall
goal.
• Members must have equal power so that everyone can participate in
the process.
• It is important that all members have mutual respect for each other.
• Managers must give teams positive feedback on their process and
output.
© McGraw-Hill Education
21
Because learning changes everything.
www.mheducation.com
© McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.
No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
®
Because learning changes everything.®
International
Management:
Culture, Strategy, and
Behavior
Part Two: The Role of
Culture
Chapter 7: Cross-Cultural
Communication and Negotiation
© McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.
No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
The Overall Communication Process
Communication is the process of transferring meanings from sender to
receiver.
• There are a great many problems in the international arena that can
result in the failure to transfer meanings correctly.
• In addition, the means and modes of communication have changed
dramatically in recent decades.
• On the plus side, we have more opportunities to communicate
rapidly, and enrich the content with photos, videos, and links.
• On the other hand, there is some concern these devices make our
communication less meaningful and personal.
© McGraw-Hill Education
2
Verbal Communication Styles
Context surrounds and helps
convey the message.
When verbal style is exacting, there
is a moderate amount of talk
• High-context societies have
coded and implicit messages.
When verbal style is succinct, there
is a low amount of talk.
• Low-context societies have
explicit messages.
A contextual style focuses on the
speaker and role relationships.
In indirect verbal styles, messages
are implicit and indirect.
A personal style focuses on the
speaker and personal relationships.
In direct verbal styles, messages
are explicit and direct.
The affective style is processoriented and receiver-focused.
When the verbal style is elaborate,
talk is of high quality.
© McGraw-Hill Education
The instrumental style is goaloriented and sender-focused.
3
Interpretation of Communications
The effectiveness of communication in the international context often is
determined by how closely the sender and receiver have the same
meaning for the same message.
• If their meanings are different, effective communication will not occur.
• A U.S. firm wanted to increase production in their Japanese plant
so they began an individual incentive plan effective in the U.S.
• The plan flopped in Japan as workers were accustomed to working
in groups and being rewarded as a group.
© McGraw-Hill Education
4
Communication Flows
Downward communication is
the transmission of information
from manager to subordinate.
Upward communication is the
transfer of information from
subordinate to superior.
• The primary purpose is to
convey orders and information.
• The primary purpose is to
provide feedback, ask questions,
or obtain assistance.
• In the international context, this
poses special challenges.
• In Asian countries,
downward communication is
less direct than in the U.S.
• In some European
countries, downward
communication is direct and
extends beyond work.
© McGraw-Hill Education
• The U.S. now seeks to increase
upward communication.
• In other countries, it has long
been a fact of life.
• Employees want upward
communication.
• It does not always occur due to
communication barriers.
5
Communication Barriers—Language
If managers do not understand the language that is used at headquarters,
they likely will make a wide assortment of errors.
• Language training continues to lag in the U.S.
• Increasingly, European countries have multilingual young people.
The ability to speak the language used at headquarters is often not
enough to ensure that the personnel are capable of doing the work.
• Many MNCs place importance on an applicant’s ability to speak
English—not considering if they can interact with others.
• Culture is routinely not taken into account during interviews.
• Nonnative speakers may know the language, but not be fluent.
Poor writing is proving to be a greater barrier than poor talking.
• Advancements in technology may eliminate many language barriers.
© McGraw-Hill Education
6
Communication Barriers—Culture
A significant number of native speakers in the U.S. might
deviate from the standard business communication practices
of other cultures.
Even in English-speaking countries, there are different
approaches to writing letters.
When compared to Asians, many American writers are far
more blunt and direct.
© McGraw-Hill Education
7
Communication Barriers—Perceptual
Perception is a person’s view of reality.
In international incidents, perception and misperceptions are critical.
A failure to understand home-country perceptions
can result in disastrous advertising programs.
• In Taiwan, “Come alive with Pepsi” frightened
consumers as it literally meant “Pepsi will bring
your ancestors back from the grave.”
Managers must be careful when translating
messages.
• Common phrases in one country will not mean
the same in others.
Perception influences how individuals “see”
others.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Most Americans
see themselves as
friendly, outgoing,
and kind, and
believe others see
them in this way.
Many are unaware
of the negative
impressions they
give to others.
8
Communication Barriers—Culture
Culture affects communication through values and misinterpretation.
• In Middle Eastern countries, people do not relate to and communicate
with each other in a loose, general way as do people in the U.S.
• Relationships are intense and binding and class and status matter.
• Another cultural value is the way that people use time.
• In the U.S., people believe time is an asset and is not to be wasted.
• An idea with limited meaning in some other cultures.
Cultural differences can cause misinterpretations both in how others see
expatriate managers and in how the latter see themselves.
• The informal approach used in the U.S. is not used everywhere.
• Many Americans also have difficulty interpreting the effect of national
values on work behavior.
© McGraw-Hill Education
9
Communication Barriers—Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication
transfers meaning through body
language and physical space.
Kinesics is body movement and
facial expression.
Chronemics refers to the way in
which time is used in a culture.
• In a monochronic time
schedule, things are done in a
linear fashion.
• Communicating through bodily
contact is known as haptics.
• In a polychronic time
schedule, people multitask and
place higher value on
involvement than on completion.
Proxemics—people use physical
space to convey messages.
Chromatics is the use of color to
communicate messages.
• Intimate distance, personal
distance, social distance,
and public distance.
• Such knowledge can help you
avoid embarrassing situations.
• Communicating through eye
contact/gaze is oculesics.
© McGraw-Hill Education
10
Figure 7-2: Personal Space Categories for Those in the U.S.
Access the text alternative for this image.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Source: Hodgetts, Richard M., and Donald F. Kuratko. Management. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991, 384.
11
Achieving Communication Effectiveness
A number of steps can be taken to improve communication effectiveness
in the international arena.
• One of the most important ways of improving effectiveness in the
international context is to open up feedback systems.
• Personal—face-to-face meetings, phone conversations, and e-mail.
• Impersonal—reports, budgets, and plans.
• Another way to make communication more effective in the
international arena is through language training.
• Another way is to provide cultural training.
• To improve understanding, increase flexibility and cooperation.
© McGraw-Hill Education
12
Managing Cross-Cultural Negotiations
Negotiation is the process of bargaining with one or more parties for the
purpose of arriving at a solution acceptable to all.
Distributive negotiations—two parties with
opposing goals compete over a set value.
• Both sides are trying to get the best deal, but a
gain for one side is a loss for the other.
Integrative negotiations involves cooperation to
integrate interests, create value, and invest in the
agreement.
• This is the most useful tactic when dealing
with business negotiation.
© McGraw-Hill Education
The two types of
negotiation differ
on five
characteristics.
• Objective.
• Motivation.
• Interests.
• Relationships.
• Outcome.
13
The Negotiation Process
Planning starts
with identifying
objectives.
Next, get to know
the people on the
other side.
The success of the
persuasion step
depends on many
things.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Then, each group
states a position
on the critical
issues.
Finally, grant
concessions and
hammer out an
agreement.
14
Cultural Differences Affecting Negotiations
• Avoid identifying the other’s
home culture too quickly.
• Beware of the Western bias
toward “doing.”
• Resist formulating simple,
consistent, stable images.
• Do not assume all aspects of
the culture are equally
significant.
• Norms for interactions involving
outsiders may differ from those
for between compatriots.
• Do not overestimate familiarity
with your counterpart’s culture.
© McGraw-Hill Education
• Culture often plays a role in
negotiation effectiveness.
• U.S. negotiator’s style often
differs from negotiators in
other countries.
• Arabs use emotional appeal
in their negotiation style.
• Before beginning, review the
negotiating style of the other
parties and formulate tactics.
• Simply being familiar with the
culture is still falling short of
being aptly informed.
15
Negotiation Tactics
Location.
• If the matter is very important, most businesses will choose a neutral
site, which has benefits.
Time limits.
• Time limits can be use tactically even when meeting at a neutral site.
Buyer-seller relations.
• Americans believe in being objective and trading favors.
• This is not the way negotiators in many other countries think.
© McGraw-Hill Education
16
Negotiating for Mutual Benefit
Separate the
people from the
problem.
Focus on interests
rather than
positions.
Insist the
agreement be
based on objective
criteria.
© McGraw-Hill Education
Generate a variety
of options before
settling on an
agreement.
Stand your ground.
17
Bargaining Behaviors
Use of extreme behaviors.
• Research shows that extreme positions tend to produce better results.
Promises, threats, and other behaviors.
• These behaviors are often influenced by culture.
Nonverbal behaviors.
• Common during negotiations—silent periods, facial gazing, touching,
and conversational overlaps.
The important thing to remember is that in international negotiations,
people use a wide variety of tactics.
• The other side must be prepared to counter or find a way of dealing
with them.
© McGraw-Hill Education
18
Because learning changes everything.
www.mheducation.com
© McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.
No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
®
1
Module 06: Discussion case study
Danone’s Wrangle with Wahaha
In late September 2009, France’s Groupe Danone SA agreed to accept a cash settlement to
relinquish claims to the name Wahaha. In a joint statement issued September 30, 2009,
Danone announced a settlement with China’s Hangzhou Wahaha Group Co. by saying its 51
percent share in joint ventures that make soft drinks and related products will be sold to the
businesses’ Chinese partners. “The completion of this settlement will put an end to all legal
proceedings related to the disputes between the two parties,” the statement said.50 The feud
over control of the Wahaha empire offered a glimpse into the breakup of a major Asian–
foreign joint venture. Danone’s strategy to Page 255 publicly confront its partner and
Wahaha’s strategy to respond with its own accusations marked a break with prevailing
business practice in China, where problems have usually been settled with face-saving,
private negotiations.51 Analysts said the case served to reinforce how difficult it is to operate
a partnership in China. “That’s a key lesson: To build a [brand] business in China you need to
build from the ground up,” said Jonathan Chajet, China managing director for consultancy
Interbrand.52 Foreign firms such as Procter & Gamble, Starbucks, and General Motors have
operated wholly or in part through joint ventures in China. But executives involved say the
expectations of foreign and local parties can conflict in a JV; for instance, when an
international company is striving for efficiencies and profits that match its global goals while
the local partner—sometimes an arm of the Chinese government—strives to maximize
employment or improve technology. At other times, partners have stolen corporate secrets or
cheated and otherwise sabotaged a venture, while legal avenues have had little effect on
disputes over operations.53 Danone, which reported the Wahaha business generated about 10
percent of its global revenue in 2006 but has since adjusted how it accounted for Wahaha,
said it expects no impact on its income statement from the settlement. In China, it will be left
with a much smaller footprint and is essentially starting over. 54 Danone’s CEO Franck
Riboud stated: “Danone has a long-standing commitment to China, where it has been present
since 1987, and we are keen to accelerate the success of our Chinese activities.” China is
Danone’s fourth-largest market after France, Spain, and the U.S., contributing about €1bn, or
8 percent, of Danone’s revenues.55
Lessons Learned
What can potential foreign investors learn from this dispute? Although JVs in China can be
quite difficult, with proper planning and management, they can be successful. In the case of
the Wahaha–Danone JV, many basic rules of JV operations in China were violated, virtually
guaranteeing the JVs destruction. According to Steve Dickinson, lawyer at Harris Moure
PLC, the primary rules violated are as follows:57
– Don’t use technical legal techniques to assert or gain control in a JV
– Do not expect that a 51 percent ownership interest in a JV will necessarily
provide effective control.
– Do not proceed with a JV formed on a weak or uncertain legal basis
– The foreign party must actively supervise or participate in the dayto-day
management of the JV.
1
Module 06: Discussion
Danone’s Wrangle with Wahaha (12 points)
For this week’s discussion read the case study about Danone in China introduced in the last
module (p. 255 in the textbook).
After reading the case, discuss the following:
1. Identify the problem in the joint venture that triggered the conflict between the two
companies and discuss the differences of each company’s understanding of their own
respective roles and responsibilities in this venture.
2. As a leader, discuss ways you would handle conflict when it arises from
organizational culture or national culture?
A case study is a puzzle to be solved and here is a strategy for formulating your initial post:
1. Read the case study to identify the key issues and underlying issues. These issues are
the principles and concepts of the course module, which apply to the situation
described in the case study.
2. Study the facts and focus on relevant information; the case may have extraneous
information not relevant to the current module.
3. Describe actions that would address or correct the situation and who should act upon
what.
4. Draw from experience, course readings or real-life experience.
Discuss the concepts, principles, and theories from your textbook. Cite your textbooks and
cite any other sources if appropriate.
• Your initial post should address all components of the question with a 500 word limit.
• Reply to at least two discussion posts with comments that further and advance the
discussion topic.
• Use academic writing standards and APA (7th ed) style guidelines
In late September 2009, France’s Groupe Danone SA agreed to accept a cash settlement to
relinquish claims to the name Wahaha. In a joint statement issued September 30, 2009,
Danone announced a settlement with China’s Hangzhou Wahaha Group Co. by saying its 51
percent share in joint ventures that make soft drinks and related products will be sold to the
businesses’ Chinese partners. “The completion of this settlement will put an end to all legal
proceedings related to the disputes between the two parties,” the statement said.50 The feud
over control of the Wahaha empire offered a glimpse into the breakup of a major Asian–
foreign joint venture. Danone’s strategy to Page 255 publicly confront its partner and
Wahaha’s strategy to respond with its own accusations marked a break with prevailing
business practice in China, where problems have usually been settled with face-saving,
private negotiations.51 Analysts said the case served to reinforce how difficult it is to operate
a partnership in China. “That’s a key lesson: To build a [brand] business in China you need to
build from the ground up,” said Jonathan Chajet, China managing director for consultancy
Interbrand.52 Foreign firms such as Procter & Gamble, Starbucks, and General Motors have
operated wholly or in part through joint ventures in China. But executives involved say the
expectations of foreign and local parties can conflict in a JV; for instance, when an
international company is striving for efficiencies and profits that match its global goals while
the local partner—sometimes an arm of the Chinese government—strives to maximize
employment or improve technology. At other times, partners have stolen corporate secrets or
cheated and otherwise sabotaged a venture, while legal avenues have had little effect on
disputes over operations.53 Danone, which reported the Wahaha business generated about 10
percent of its global revenue in 2006 but has since adjusted how it accounted for Wahaha,
said it expects no impact on its income statement from the settlement. In China, it will be left
2
with a much smaller footprint and is essentially starting over. 54 Danone’s CEO Franck
Riboud stated: “Danone has a long-standing commitment to China, where it has been present
since 1987, and we are keen to accelerate the success of our Chinese activities.” China is
Danone’s fourth-largest market after France, Spain, and the U.S., contributing about €1bn, or
8 percent, of Danone’s revenues.55
Lessons Learned
What can potential foreign investors learn from this dispute? Although JVs in China can be
quite difficult, with proper planning and management, they can be successful. In the case of
the Wahaha–Danone JV, many basic rules of JV operations in China were violated, virtually
guaranteeing the JVs destruction. According to Steve Dickinson, lawyer at Harris Moure
PLC, the primary rules violated are as follows:57
– Don’t use technical legal techniques to assert or gain control in a JV
– Do not expect that a 51 percent ownership interest in a JV will necessarily
provide effective control.
– Do not proceed with a JV formed on a weak or uncertain legal basis
– The foreign party must actively supervise or participate in the dayto-day
management of the JV.

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

We offer the bestcustom writing paper services. We have done this question before, we can also do it for you.

Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.