MGT 301 SEU Team Characteristics And Diversity Questions

Description‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬
‫وزارة التعليم‬
‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Education
Saudi Electronic University
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 2
Organizational Behaviour (MGT 301)
Due Date: 03/06/2023 @ 23:59
Course Name: Organizational Behaviour
Student’s Name:
Course Code: MGT301
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: 3rd Semester
Academic Year:2022-23
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade: 00 /15
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low

The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented; marks may be reduced
for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No
pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Learning Outcomes:
1 Assess challenges of effective organizational communication and share information
within the team in professional manner. (CLO4)
2 Examine the differences and similarities between leadership, power, and
Assignment 2
Reference Source:
Textbook:Colquitt, J. A., LePine, J. A., & Wesson, M. J. (2021). Organizational behaviour:
Improving performance and commitment in the workplace (7th ed). Burr Ridge, IL:
McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Case Study: –
Case: Whole Foods
Please read the case “Whole Foods” from Chapter 11 “Team Characteristics And
Diversity” Page: – 361 given in your textbook – Organizational behaviour: Improving
performance and commitment in the workplace (7th ed). by Colquitt, J. A., LePine, J. A.,
& Wesson, M. J. (2021) and Answer the following Questions:
Assignment Question(s):
1. What label would best describe the type of team that Whole Foods uses in its stores?
Explain. (03 Marks) (Min words 100-200)
2. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of Whole Foods’ hiring process with respect
to managing team composition. (03 Marks) (Min words 150-250)
3. What steps could Whole Foods take to mitigate potential disadvantages of their hiring
process? (03 Marks) (Min words 200)
Discussion questions: – Please read Chapter 13 & 14 “Leadership; Power and
Negotiation & Leadership; Styles and Behaviours” carefully and then give your answers
on the basis of your understanding.
4. Think about the last serious conflict you had with a co-worker or group member. How
was that conflict resolved? Which approach did you take to resolve it? (03 Marks ) (Min
words 150-200)
5. Consider the four dimensions of transformational leadership: idealized influence,
inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Which
of those dimensions would you respond to most favourably? Why? (03 Marks ) (Min
words 200-300)
Important Notes: 1. Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from
the textbook and at least two scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles.
2. References required in the assignment. Use APA style for writing references.
Final PDF to printer
Teams: Characteristics and Diversity

Disjunctive tasks
Conjunctive tasks
Additive tasks
Team diversity
Value in diversity problemsolving approach
p. 351
p. 351
p. 351
p. 352
p. 352

Similarity-attraction approach
Surface-level diversity
Deep-level diversity
Team viability
Hybrid outcome
p. 352
p. 353
p. 353
p. 357
p. 358
Discussion Questions
11.1 In which types of teams have you worked? Were these teams consistent with the taxonomy
of team types discussed in this chapter, or were they a combination of types?
11.2 Think about your student teams. Which aspects of both models of team development apply
the most and least to teams in this context? Do you think these teams function best in an
additive, disjunctive, or conjunctive manner? What are the advantages and disadvantages
of each structure?
11.3 Think about a highly successful team with which you are familiar. What types of task, goal,
and outcome interdependence does this team have? Describe how changes in task, goal,
and outcome interdependence might have a negative impact on this team.
11.4 What type of roles do you normally take on in a team setting? Are there task or social roles
that you simply don’t perform well? If so, why do you think this is?
11.5 How would you describe your student team in terms of its diversity? In what ways would
there be advantages and disadvantages to increasing its diversity? How might you be able
to manage some of the disadvantages so that your team is able to capitalize on the potential advantages?
Case: Whole Foods
Teams are taken very seriously at Whole Foods. Not only are company employees referred to as
“team members,” but teams are given a great deal of freedom to make important decisions. For
example, teams help decide what items to order and sell, and how to price and promote them.
Although it might not seem all that unusual for a company to give teams the liberty to make decisions so they can carry out their core functional responsibilities, Whole Foods goes much further
in providing autonomy to its teams. Perhaps there is no better example of this than how new
team members are hired at the company.
In most organizations, individuals seeking employment fill out an application form or submit
a résumé. Those with qualifications that are judged to match a job description are interviewed
by human resource personnel or a manager to make sure the applicant fits with the job and organization. At Whole Foods, the process is quite different and much more involved. Applicants
not only fill out an application and have one-on-one interviews with managers, but they also
have interviews with panels composed of recruiters, managers, and select team members. But
that’s not all. An applicant who makes it through this process is placed on a team for a 30-day
trial period, after which the team votes for whether or not to accept the applicant on their team.
Applicants who don’t get a two-thirds vote are out of that team. They may be placed on a new
team, where the trial process begins anew, or they leave the company.
This hiring process typically takes about 60 days and is applied at all levels of the organization, from employees who stock shelves in the stores to accountants who work in the corporate
office. Whole Foods believes that hiring decisions should be made by the team members, in part,
because they’re the ones who are most directly affected by the choices that are made. A new hire
who ends up hurting a team’s performance will reduce bonuses paid to team members, whereas
10/23/19 07:13 PM
Final PDF to printer
Teams: Characteristics and Diversity
the opposite would be true of a hire that ends up promoting a team’s performance. Whole Foods
also believes that the team members themselves are the best judges of who might fit within their
team. Finally, involving team members in the hiring process promotes a sense of ownership for
the decision, and following from this, team members may be more inclined to help a new hire
who is struggling to catch on.
What label would best describe the type of team that Whole Foods uses in its stores?
11.2 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of Whole Foods’ hiring process with respect to
managing team composition.
What steps could Whole Foods take to mitigate potential disadvantages of their hiring
Sources: D. Burkus, “Why Whole Foods Builds Its Entire Business on Teams,” Forbes, June 8, 2016, https://www.forbes.
com/sites/davidburkus/2016/06/08/why-whole-foods-build-their-entire-business-on-teams/#1553674b3fa1; C. Fishman,
“Whole Foods Is All Teams,” Fast Company, April 30, 1996,;
Whole Foods, “Whole Foods Market History,” (accessed Mach 31, 2017).
Exercise: Paper Plane Corporation
The purpose of this exercise is to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of sequential versus
pooled interdependence on a team production project. This exercise uses groups, so your instructor will either assign you to a group or ask you to create your own group. The exercise has the
following steps.
11.1 Your professor will supply you with the materials you need to create your final product
(as many paper airplanes as you can fold to quality standards in three 5-minute rounds).
Instructions for folding the paper airplanes and judging their quality are provided below.
Before you start work on your airplanes, do the following:
a. As a group, select a team manager (who will supervise operations and get additional
resources as needed) and a team inspector (who will judge the quality of the work on
b. Familiarize yourself with how to make a paper airplane by folding one according to the
c. Be sure you are in a space where all of the team members can work comfortably.
d. To the extent possible, move away from other groups.
e. Familiarize yourself with the information about the Paper Plane Corporation.
11.2 Your group is the complete workforce for the Paper Plane Corporation. Established in
1943, Paper Plane has led the market in paper plane production. Presently under new management, the company is contracting to make aircraft for the U.S. Air Force. You must
determine the most efficient method for producing these aircraft. You must make your
contract with the Air Force under the following conditions:
a. The Air Force will pay $200,000 per airplane.
b. The aircraft must pass a strict inspection by a quality control manager.
c. A penalty of $250,000 per airplane will be subtracted for each failure to meet the production requirements.
d. Labor and other overhead will be computed at $3,000,000.
e. Cost of materials will be $30,000 per bid plane. If you bid for 10 but make only 8, you must
pay the cost of materials for those you failed to make or those that did not pass inspection.
10/23/19 07:13 PM
Next Time
Chapter 13: Leadership: Power and Negotiation
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 13
Leadership: Power and
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Class Agenda
Leadership defined
Types of power
Influence tactics
Organizational politics
Conflict resolution
©McGraw-Hill Education.
An Integrative Roadmap
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The use of power and influence to direct the activities of
followers toward goal achievement
• When you think of “effective leaders,” who do you think
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The ability to influence the behavior of others and resist
unwanted influence in return
• What made the leaders you named powerful, exactly?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 13-1 Types of Power
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Jump to Appendix 1 long image
Expert Power
1. I can provide others with the technical details that they need in their work.
2. I can give others advice that flows from my unique expertise.
3. I have skills and training that I can share with others to improve their work.
4. I am able to provide sound technical suggestions to my colleagues.
Average Score: 14
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Referent Power
1. I can make others feel a sense of pride.
2. I can give others a sense of importance.
3. I can make others feel a sense of value.
4. I can serve as a positive role model to others.
Average Score: 12
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Contingency Factors
Leaders are better able to use their power to influence
others when they have:
• Low substitutability
• High discretion
• High centrality
• High visibility
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or
attitudinal changes in others
• Most frequently occurs downward (managers influencing
employees) but can also be lateral (peers influencing
peers) or upward (employees influencing managers)
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 13-2 Influence Tactics and
Their Effectiveness
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Jump to Appendix 2 long image
Figure 13-3 Responses to Influence Attempts
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Jump to Appendix 3 long image
Power and Influence in Action
Leaders can use their power and influence in a number
of ways, including:
• Navigating the political environment in the organization
• Resolving conflicts within the organization
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Organizational Politics
Actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal
of furthering their own self-interests
• Political skill is the ability to effectively understand others
at work and use that knowledge to influence others in
ways that enhance personal and/or organizational
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Political Skill
Average Score: 23
Jump to Appendix 4 long image
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Source: For a more detailed measure of political skill,
see G.R. Ferris, D.C. Treadway, R.W. Kolodinsky, W.A. Hochwarter, C.J. Kacmar, C. Douglas, and D.D. Frink,
“Development and Validation of the Political Skill Inventory,” Journal of Management 31 (2005), pp. 126–52.
Figure 13-4 The Causes and Consequences of
Organizational Politics
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Jump to Appendix 5 long image
Conflict Resolution
There are five different styles a leader can use when
handling conflict, each of which is appropriate in different
• The five styles can be viewed as combinations of two
separate factors:
• How assertive leaders want to be in pursuing their own goals
• How cooperative they are with regard to the concerns of others
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 13-5 Styles of Conflict Resolution
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Jump to Appendix 6 long image
1 of 2
A process in which two or more interdependent
individuals discuss and attempt to come to an
agreement about their different preferences
• Distributive bargaining: win-lose style with fixed pie, zero
sum conditions
• Integrative bargaining: win-win style utilizing mutual
respect and problem solving
©McGraw-Hill Education.
2 of 2
Negotiation Stages
• Preparation
• Exchanging information
• Bargaining
• Closing and commitment
©McGraw-Hill Education.

OB on Screen
Bridge of Spies
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 13-7 Effects of Power and Influence on
Performance and Commitment
Source: R.T. Sparrowe, B.W. Soetjipto, and M.L. Kraimer, “Do Leaders’ Influence Tactics Relate to Members’ Helping Behavior? It Depends on the
Quality of the Relationship,” Academy of Management Journal 49 (2006), pp. 1194–1208; G. Yukl, H. Kim, and C.M. Falbe, “Antecedents of Influence
Outcomes,” Journal of Applied Psychology 81 (1996), pp. 309–17; and P.P. Carson, K.D. Carson, and C.W. Rowe, “Social Power Bases: A Meta-Analytic
Examination of Interrelationships and Outcomes,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 23 (1993), pp. 1150–69.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Next Time
Chapter 14: Leadership: Styles and Behaviors
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 14
Leadership: Styles and
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Class Agenda
Leadership defined
Who becomes a leader?
What styles does a leader use?
What behaviors does a leader exhibit?
• Day-to-Day
• Transformational
©McGraw-Hill Education.
An Integrative Roadmap
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The use of power and influence to direct the activities of
followers toward goal achievement
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 14-1 Leader-Member Exchange Theory
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Jump to Appendix 1 long image
Leader-Member Exchange Quality
1. I have a close working relationship with my supervisor.
2. I have confidence in the actions and intentions of my supervisor.
3. My supervisor and I are close enough to back each other up when needed.
4. I would use my power to help my supervisor, and I know he/she would do the
5. My supervisor and I both understand each other’s likes and dislikes.
6. My supervisor understands my needs, and vice versa.
7. My supervisor and I always know where we stand with one another.
Average Score: 24
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 14-2 Traits/Characteristics Related to
Leader Emergence and Effectiveness
Description of Trait/Characteristic
High conscientiousness
Low agreeableness
Low neuroticism
High openness to experience
High extraversion
High general cognitive ability
High energy level
High stress tolerance
High self-confidence
Linked to
Linked to
Sources: Adapted from T.A. Judge, J.E. Bono, R. Ilies, and M.W. Gerhardt, “Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative
and Quantitative Review,” Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (2002), pp. 765–80; T.A. Judge, A.E. Colbert, and R. Ilies,
“Intelligence and Leadership: A Quantitative Review and Test of Theoretical Propositions,” Journal of Applied Psychology
89 (2004), pp. 542–52; and G. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 4th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998).
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Leadership Styles
Leaders can be separated by the style they use when
making important decisions.
These styles vary in how much control is retained by the
leader and how much control is given to the followers.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 14-2 Leader Decision-Making Styles
Is there likely to be one best style?
What factors might impact the
appropriateness of the various styles?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Jump to Appendix 2 long image
Figure 14-3 The Time-Driven Model of
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Jump to Appendix 3 long image
Time-Driven Model
Scientific support:
• In one study, following the model resulted in effective
decisions 68% of the time. Not following the model
resulted in effective decisions 22% of the time.
Leaders’ instincts usually violate the model.
• Leaders overuse consultative styles and underutilize
autocratic and facilitative.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
OB on Screen
The Martian
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Leadership Behaviors
In addition to making decisions, leaders engage in a
number of behaviors.
• What are some of those behaviors?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Day-to-Day Behaviors
1 of 2
There are two broad dimensions that encompass day-today leadership behaviors:
Initiating Structure
• Defining and structuring the roles of employees for goal
• Creating job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect,
and consideration of employees’ feelings
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Initiating Structure and Consideration
Score: 38
Score: 40
Source: R.M. Stogdill, Manual for the Leader Behavior Description
Questionnaire–Form XII (Columbus, OH: Bureau of Business Research,
The Ohio State University, 1963).
Jump to Appendix 4 for long description.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Day-to-Day Behaviors
2 of 2
Might the importance of initiating structure and
consideration vary across followers and situations?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 14-4 The Life Cycle
Theory of Leadership
Jump to Appendix 5 long image
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Something Is Missing
Think about the most effective leaders you can name.
Do the leader behaviors and styles discussed thus far
capture what it was that made these leaders so
So what’s missing?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Transformational Leadership
1 of 3
Transformational leadership involves a pattern of
behaviors that inspires followers to commit to a shared
vision that provides meaning to their work and sets the
leader up as a role model who helps followers reach
their potential.
It is most often contrasted with so-called “transactional
leadership,” which is built around exchanges of rewards
and punishments, or “laissez-faire” leadership, which is
the absence of action.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 14-5 Laissez-Faire, Transactional, and
Transformational Leadership
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Jump to Appendix 6 long image
Transformational Leadership
2 of 3
Idealized influence
Inspirational motivation
Intellectual stimulation
Individualized consideration
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Transformational Leadership
3 of 3
1. I inspire others through my actions.
2. I serve as a role model for the values that I hold.
3. I encourage others to come at problems from new angles.
4. I act in a way that builds a sense of trustworthiness.
5. I do things to encourage the development of the people around me.
6. I communicate an optimistic vision for our work.
Average Score: 18
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 14-7 Effects of Transformational
Leadership on Performance and Commitment
Sources: T.A. Judge and R.F. Piccolo, “Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Relative Validity,” Journal of
Applied Psychology 89 (2004), pp. 755–68; J.P. Meyer, D.J. Stanley, L. Herscovitch, and L. Topolnytsky, “Affective, Continuance, and Normative
Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 61 (2002),
pp. 20–52; and P.M. Podsakoff, S.B. MacKenzie, J.B. Paine, and D.G. Bachrach, “Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the
Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research,” Journal of Management 26 (2000), pp. 513–63.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Next Time
Chapter 15: Organizational Structure
©McGraw-Hill Education.

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