LAPC Mineral Study Guide And Calcium Worksheet


In this module’s activity/worksheet, you will be using the powerpoint lecture to review key facts about several major and trace minerals.  Fill in ALL the blanks in the table about each mineral, and use the finished table as a study guide for your final exam.
Then, estimate your daily calcium intake by adding up how many servings of calcium-rich foods you consume on a typical day.  Determine whether you meet/exceed the RDA for calcium or whether you are in a deficit by subtracting your daily intake from the RDA (1000 mg, 1200 mg, or 1300 mg per day depending on your age).Module 8 / Activity 7: Mineral Study Guide & Calcium Worksheet
Key Functions
Primary Food Sources
Deficiency (name/symptoms,
high risk groups)
Toxicity (negative effects,
UL/max safe suppl dose)
Module 8 / Activity 7: Mineral Study Guide & Calcium Worksheet
Calcium Worksheet
Each of the following foods provides 1 serving of calcium (~ 300 mg or ~ 25% DV/Daily Value*):
*NOTE: DV on food/supplement labels are based on 1300 mg calcium. Goal is to get 2-3 servings of these foods per day to meet your calcium needs.

8 oz. of cow’s milk or calcium-fortified non-dairy alternative
1 cup yogurt or pudding
1.5 oz. of hard cheese
8 oz. firm tofu processed with calcium
1 serving of some calcium-fortified cereals, nutrition bars or shakes
1.5 cups of cooked kale or mustard greens
3 cups of cooked broccoli
How many servings of these calcium-rich foods do you eat on a typical day?
__________ servings
Calculate your estimated daily calcium intake
# servings of calcium-rich foods _____ x 300 mg =
__________ mg
Typical amount of calcium from miscellaneous sources
+ 300
Your total estimated daily calcium intake
= ________mg
Calculate your calcium deficit (this is a reasonable supplement dose):
NOTE: If your total intake is more than 1000 to 1300 mg, you have an excess (not a deficit) and can write ZERO mg supplement.
(Your RDA 1000/1200/1300 mg ) – (Your total intake _________ mg ) =
__________ mg
Sheri Barke, MPH, RD, CSSD
LA Mission College
Minerals: Definition & Classification
 16 Essential, noncaloric, inorganic nutrients
 Chemical elements, stable (not destroyed by heat, light or
 Classification:
Major (7): calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur,
sodium, chloride, & potassium
(>5 g in body, > 100 mg required in diet)
Trace (9): iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, fluoride,
copper, manganese, & molybdenum
( Bone Formation
9-18 years old
RDA=1300 mg
> Bone Resorption
51+ years old
RDA=1200 mg
Calcium deficiency → Osteoporosis
Other risk factors for osteoporosis
 Low estrogen or testosterone
 Amenorrhea in young women due to
energy/calorie deficiency
 Menopause in older women
 No obvious sign in men with low T
 Lack of weight-bearing exercise
 Low body weight
 Deficiencies of bone building nutrients
(protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins
C, D, & K, fluoride, magnesium)
 Cigarette smoking, excess alcohol
 Some medications (e.g. corticosteroids)
Do you need a calcium supplement?
Calcium-Rich Foods (~300 mg)
 8 oz. of cow’s milk or fortified nondairy alternative (with ~25% DV*)
 1 cup yogurt or pudding
 1.5 oz. of hard cheese
 8 oz. firm tofu processed with
 1 serving of some fortified cereals,
nutrition bars or shakes (~25% DV*)
 1.5 cups of cooked kale or mustard
 3 cups of cooked broccoli
NOTE: Oxylates in spinach bind calcium &
make it unavailable.
*DV on food labels is based on 1300 mg Ca
 How many servings of the foods
on the left do you eat per day?
 # Servings x 300 mg + 300 mg from
misc. sources = your Ca intake
 If less than 1000-1300 mg, you may
supplement with the difference.
 Can you get too much calcium?
 YES! UL = 2500 mg
 Too much can..
 increase risk of kidney stones
 interfere with absorption of
minerals iron/zinc/copper
 may increase risk of prostate
cancer in men
2nd most abundant mineral in the body
 Most found with calcium in
bones and teeth
 Component of cell membranes
 Involved in lipid transport (since
part of lipoproteins)
 Involved in energy metabolism
(since component of ATP)
 Deficiency uncommon
 RDA 700 mg / UL 4000 mg
 Food Sources:
 high protein foods
 Functions:
 bone mineralization
 energy metabolism & enzyme
function in >300 reactions
 muscle contraction
 nerve impulse transmission
 protein synthesis (DNA/RNA)
 Deficiency: rare, but could cause
abnormal nerve & muscle function
 RDA 420 mg (M), 320 mg (W)
 UL 350 mg (from supplement)
 Can cause diarrhea, nausea (in
extreme cases, heart failure)
Food Sources: Unprocessed foods,
whole grains, nuts, legumes, dark
green vegetables, & chocolate
Trace Minerals
Many serve as co-factors
 Co-factor for more than 300 metalloenzymes
 Involved in DNA replication, growth, sperm production, immune function & taste
 Deficiency: poor growth & sexual maturation, poor immune response, poor taste
 Food sources: seafood (esp. oysters), meat, poultry, dairy, legumes, nuts, seeds
*animal sources more bioavailable than plant sources (so vegans at risk)
 Toxicity: UL 40 mg (suppresses immunity, interferes with copper absorption, decreases HDL)
Manganese & Molybdenum
 Co-factors for metalloenzymes
 Co-factor for 9 enzymes involved in redox reactions
 Function: oxygen transport
 Part of hemoglobin (in RBC)
 Most common deficiency in U.S.
and world-wide!
 Part of myoglobin (in muscle cells)
 Who’s at highest deficiency risk?
 infants (breastmilk low)
 Absorption, transport, & storage
carefully controlled
 Body’s need determines how much is
absorbed vs. eliminated in feces
 Once in blood, binds to transferrin
 # of iron-binding receptors on cell
change according to needs of cell
 Surplus iron (+ recycled iron from RBC
breakdown every 3 mo.) stored as
ferritin (in liver, muscle, & bone marrow)
 children (higher needs w/growth)
 menstruating women (heavy loss)
 pregnant women (higher needs)
 vegetarians (less bioavailable)
 endurance athletes (higher loss
of RBCs with foot pounding)
Stages of Iron Deficiency → Anemia
Stage 1
• Iron
(ferritin 2135 mcg/L)
Stage 2
• Iron
(ferritin 1220 mcg/L
and ↑ TIBC
Stage 3
• Iron
< 12 and Hgb 1 year. Exclusively breastfed infants need…  Vitamin D (400 IU/day) beginning first few days of life until consuming >16 oz. fortified formula or fortified cow’s milk after 1 year.
 Fluoride (0.25 mg/day) beginning at 6 mo. if local water not
fluoridated >0.3 ppm
 Iron (1 mg/kg/day or iron-fortified cereals) beginning at 4-6 mo.
NOTE: All infant formula is fortified with vitamin D and most with iron. If
prepared with non-fluoridated water, these infants will also need fluoride
Supplements for children?
AAP doesn’t make any supplement recommendations for small children.
 Use MyPlate guide.
 No more than 3 cups of milk/day for 1-5 yr. olds (to meet calcium/vit. D
needs without displacing iron-rich foods).
What about for very picky eaters?
 Continue to offer exposures to a variety of foods.
 Continue to role model balanced mindful eating.
 Be patient. Don’t pressure, force, or bribe
 Supplement with a simple chewable multi
vitamin/mineral, if desired.

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