LACC Dinosaur World Dinosaur Trackways CSI Jurassic Dinosaur Eggs and Nests Worksheet

DescriptionName:
Geology 110T
Dinosaur World
Dinosaur Trackways Exercise
Examine the trackways on the next page and answer the following questions.
1. How many different individual dinosaurs made these tracks?
2. The larger sets of prints were made by Tyrannosaurs while a hadrosaur made
the smaller tracks. Speculate as to why the Tyrannosaur prints coming down
from the upper left-hand corner end.
3. Why do the Tyrannosaur prints coming up from the lower left of the drawing
become spaced further apart?
4. Write a narrative that describes what happened between the Tyrannosaur that
made the prints coming up from the lower left of the drawing and the hadrosaur
that made the prints that come up from the lower right of the drawing. Be sure to
discuss why the hadrosaur prints end and why there is a drag mark behind the
Tyrannosaur prints going away from the chaotic area that contains both footprints
(that the arrow is pointing to).
Name:
Geology 110T
Dinosaur World
CSI, Jurassic
1. How do paleontologists determine what dinosaur ate what dinosaur? List and
explain 3 separate lines of evidence a paleontologist could use to determine what
a particular type of meat a predator preferred.
The drawing on the back shows a dinosaur discovery from Wyoming. The remains of
one Tenontosaurus (a type of hadrosaur) and 4 Deinonychus (a type of Coelurosaur)
were found. In addition, 35 Deinonychus teeth were found in the area.
1. What does this fossil site tell us about the hunting habits of Deinonychus?
2. While it may seem like common sense that the Tenontosaurus killed the
Deinonychus, this may not be the case. Discuss another scenario in which the
Deinonychus might have been killed.
Name:
Day you have Lab:
Geology 110T
Dinosaur World
Dinosaur Eggs and Nests
The drawing and photograph below show magnified views of dinosaur eggs.
1. What is the purpose of the canals (holes) that run through the eggshell?
2. Some dinosaur eggs are smooth like chicken eggs, but others are bumpy, like in
the photo below. Speculate as to what purpose the bumpy outer surfaces might
serve.
Next, examine the dinosaur nest below (shown from 3 different angles):
1. The dotted portion of the eggs represents the part of the egg that was buried.
Therefore, these eggs were partially buried, but not completely. Do you think the
dinosaur that laid these eggs actively watched over the eggs, or do you think the
dinosaur was a bad parent and abandoned its eggs? Explain.
2. What purpose would only partially burying the eggs serve?
2nd part
Stegosaur and Ankylosaur Phylogeny:
Stegosaurs and Ankylosaurs both belong to the Thyreophora, and are therefore related
to each other:
1. Skip question 1. Using the drawings of the Stegosaur and Ankylosaur on the
next page, list 5 similarities between the two types of dinosaurs:
a. ________________________________________________
b. ________________________________________________
c. ________________________________________________
d. ________________________________________________
e. ________________________________________________
2. Next, examine the drawings of the Stegosaur and Ankylosaur and list 5
differences between the two that might allow you to differentiate them:
a. ________________________________________________
b. ________________________________________________
c. ________________________________________________
d. ________________________________________________
e. ________________________________________________
Stegosaurus:
Ankylosaur:
3. List 5 adaptations that ankylosaurs had to defend themselves against attack by a
predator:
a. ________________________________________________
b. ________________________________________________
c. ________________________________________________
d. ________________________________________________
e. ________________________________________________
4. In the drawing above, Stegosaurus is shown with the tail spikes facing outwards
(parallel to the ground). Many past reconstructions have incorrectly shown the
tail spikes facing upwards. Why does it make more sense for the spikes to be
facing outwards rather than upwards?
5. Stegosaurus spikes were almost certainly used for defense. If you think about
certain modern mammals (e.g., bighorn sheep) they use what might be
considered a defensive adaptation (horns) in competitions to establish
dominance over other males in the herd. What would you look for to support or
rule out the idea that male Stegosaurus might have used their tail spikes in
competitions with other males to establish dominance?
6. Along the same lines as the last question, what would you look for to support or
rule out the idea that male Ankylosaurs might have used their tail clubs in
competitions with other males to establish dominance?
7. No eggs or nests of Stegosaurs or Ankylosaurs have ever been discovered.
a. Suggest an environmental reason for why no eggs or nests have been
found:
b. Suggest a biological reason for why no eggs or nests have been found:
Part 2. Ceratopsians and Pachycephalosaurs
Ceratopsian and Pachycephalosaur Phylogeny:
Ceratopsians and Pachycephalosaurs both belong to the same group of dinosaurs, the
Marginocephalia.
1. Skip question 1. Using the drawings of the Triceratops and Stegoceras skeletons
on the next page, list 5 similarities that the 2 groups have:
a. ________________________________________________
b. ________________________________________________
c. ________________________________________________
d. ________________________________________________
e. ________________________________________________
2. Skip question 2. List 5 differences between Triceratops and Stegoceras that
might allow you to differentiate them:
a. ________________________________________________
b. ________________________________________________
c. ________________________________________________
d. ________________________________________________
e. ________________________________________________
Triceratops (Ceratopsian):
Stegoceras (Pachycephalosaur):
Ceratopsian Biology:
1. Ceratopsians skeletons are often found with healed frills and rib fractures.
Speculate as to the original cause of these injuries.
2. The famous image that is invoked by many people when they think if dinosaurs is
the standoff between a Triceratops and a Tyrannosaurus rex.
a. List and explain 2 types of trace fossil evidence that you could collect to
determine if this happened.
b. List and explain 2 types of fossil evidence that you could look for to
determine if this happened.
3. Some scientists have suggested that Pachycephalosaurs butted heads in a
manner similar to modern bighorn sheep. Calculations of the amount of force
generated by two Pachycephalosaurs colliding head-on reveal the amount of
force of the collision to be 150,000 N/m2.
a. How much force would this be in lbs/in2?
Note: 1 N = 0.22 lbs
1 m = 39.4 in
b. Based on your answer to a, do you think Pachycephalosaurs actually
butted heads? For comparison’s sake, the force generated by a bat hitting
a baseball is about 0.75 lbs/in2).
c. Another theory is that male Pachycephalosaurs may have butted the
flanks (hips) of other males as opposed to “knocking heads”. How could
you test this hypothesis?
Dinosaur Footprints and Trackways Lab
Part 1. Foot size and leg length:
1. We can estimate the length of a dinosaur’s leg by looking at its footprint. For
dinosaurs, this is important as the length of the leg is related to how fast the
dinosaur could run (we’ll look more into this later in the lab). In general, studies
of dinosaur skeletons reveals that the leg length is 5x the length of the foot.
Calculate your ratio of leg length/foot length:
1. Length of my leg in cm (note: measure from the bottom of your foot to
where your femur inserts into your hip):
2. Length of my foot in cm:
3. Ratio of Leg length/Foot length:
4. Class average:
2. How did your ratio of leg length/foot length compare to that of the class average?
Do you think this is an accurate way to estimate leg length from footprints?
3. How different is the class average for leg length/foot length different from that of
dinosaurs?
Examine the dinosaur trackway
to the right. You’ll notice several
sets of tracks made by a herd of
sauropods (the larger footprints,
labeled trackways S1-S4) and by
several theropods (a predator;
the smaller footprints).
1. Hypothesize as to why the
sauropods tracks that make
up trackway S1 end abruptly.
2. Examine trackway S2. What
led to the multiple sets of
theropod footprints to the left
of the sauropod trackway in
the bottom third of the set of
sauropod footprints?
3. Why are the sauropod tracks
in S4 so much smaller than
those in S3? Why do the
footprints in S4 split from
those in S3? Why do you
think the S4 trackway ends
abruptly while the S3
trackway continues on?
4. Hypothesize as to why the
theropod footprints to the left
of S4 come and go. Hint: the
reason is likely related to
behavior, not preservation of
the footprints.
Examine the dinosaur trackway
to the right that shows 3 sets of
tracks. The largest tracks were
made by a theropod (probably a
Tyrannosaurus rex), the mediumsized tracks were made by an
ornithopod (plant-eater), and an
unknown dinosaur made the
smallest tracks. You should
notice several things:
1. The ornithopod footprints
are all going in the same
direction
2. The footprints of the
smaller, unknown dinosaur
are all going in different
directions.
3. All of the tracks overlap
with each other,
suggesting that they were
all made at the same time.
Based on the above information, and
any other information you can
determine from the trackways,
construct a history of how the tracks
were made, and discuss the history
below:

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