Case Study

Description‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬
‫وزارة التعليم‬
‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Education
Saudi Electronic University
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 1
Organization Design and Development (MGT 404)
Due Date: 29/04/2023 @ 23:59
Course Name:
Student’s Name:
Course Code: MGT404
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: Third
CRN:
Academic Year:2022-23-3rd
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade:
Marks Obtained/Out of 15
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY








The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced
for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No
pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Learning Outcomes:
1. Describe the basic steps of the organizational development process.
2. Evaluate the strategic role of change in the organization and its impact on
organizational performance.
Assignment Question(s):
Please refer to the case study titled “Planned Change in an Underorganized System”
given on Page number 36, Chapter 2 in your textbook and answer the following questions:
1. Critically discuss the basic change process beginning with the formation of IMAR
and ending with the existence of a number of funded projects carried out by
university researchers. (3 marks)
2. Which model of planned change has been used in the case from your point of view?
and why? (3 marks)
3. Based on what you have learned about positive model, action research model and
the general model of planned change, were there any important steps omitted from
the IMAR change process? Were there any extra steps included in the IMAR
change process? Please explain. (3 marks)
4. Discuss the main challenges faced by the team during the change process. (3 marks)
5. Critically evaluate the change process and if you were the consultant what would
you have done differently to improve the process? (3 marks)
Note:


You must include at least 5 references.
Format your references using APA style.
Answers
1. Answer2. Answer3. Answer-
36
PART 1 OVERVIEW OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT
T
he Institute for Manufacturing and Automation
Research (IMAR) was founded in 1987 in
Los Angeles by a group of manufacturing
industry members. In its earliest stages of
development, one person who had a clear picture of the obstacles to manufacturing excellence was Dale Hartman, IMAR’s executive
director and former director for manufacturing at
Hughes Aircraft Company. He and several other
industry associates pinpointed the predominant
reasons for flagging competitiveness: needless
duplication of effort among manufacturing innovators; difficulties in transferring technological breakthroughs from university to industry; frequent
irrelevance of university research to the needs of
industry; and the inability of individual industry
members to commit the time and funds to
research projects needed for continued technological advances.
Hartman and his colleagues determined
that organizations should create a pool of
funds for research and concluded that the
research would most efficiently be carried out
in existing university facilities. They worked
through at least several plans before they
arrived at the idea of the IMAR consortium.
The U.S. Navy had been interested in joint
efforts for innovations in artificial intelligence,
but its constraints and interests were judged
to be too narrow to address the problems
that Hartman and the others identified.
Networking with other industry members—
TRW, Hughes, Northrop, and Rockwell—and
two universities with which Hughes had been
engaging in ongoing research—the University
of Southern California (USC) and University of
California, Los Angeles (UCLA)—this original
group formed a steering committee to investigate the viability of a joint research and development consortium. Each of the six early planners
contributed $5,000 as seed money for basic
expenses. The steering committee, based on
experience in cooperative research, determined
that a full-time person was needed to assume
leadership of the consortium. Members of the
committee persuaded Dale Hartman to retire
early from Hughes and take on IMAR’s leadership full-time. Hartman brought with him a
wealth of knowledge about barriers to innovation and technology transfer, and a solid reputation in both industry and academia that was
crucial for the success of multiple-sector partnerships. As a former Hughes networker, he knew
how to lobby state and federal government
sources for funds and legislation that promoted
industry innovation. He also knew a host of talented people in Southern California whom he
would persuade to become IMAR members.
In his 30 years in manufacturing, Hartman
found that university-driven research had not
produced a respectable yield of usable information. University research was frequently irrelevant to industry needs and seldom provided for
transfer of usable innovation to the plant floor.
Industry was only tangentially involved in what
the university was doing and Hartman saw little opportunity for the two sectors to benefit
from a partnership. Therefore, it was determined that IMAR would be user-driven. Industry would set the agenda by choosing projects
from among university proposals that promised to be of generic use to industry members,
and it would benefit by influencing the direction of research and receiving early information
about research results.
In the next several months, the steering
committee and Hartman met regularly to
define common research needs and locate
funding sources. They sought industry sponsors from high-technology companies with an
understanding of the problems in manufacturing research and a desire to do more than
merely supply money. They wanted members
who would be willing to get involved in IMAR’s
programs. Furthermore, they wanted all members to be able to use the results of IMAR’s
generic research while not competing directly
with each other. Finally, they decided that they
wanted a relatively small membership. If the
membership grew too large, it might become
unwieldy and thus obstruct efforts to get
things done.
IMAR’s industrial advisory board was
formed with six industrial organizations
represented—Xerox, Hughes, TRW, Northrop,
IBM, and Rockwell—in addition to USC and
application 2 2
PLANNED CHANGE IN AN UNDERORGANIZED SYSTEM
CHAPTER 2 THE NATURE OF PLANNED CHANGE
UCLA. Members were to pay $100,000 each and
make a three-year commitment to IMAR. With initial objectives in place and a committed membership, Hartman was already searching for additional
funding sources. He was successful in getting a bill
introduced in California’s state legislature, later
signed by the governor, that authorized the state
department of commerce to fund IMAR
$200,000. Moreover, IMAR was able to tie into the
Industry–University Cooperative Research Center
Program (IUCRCP) of the National Science Foundation
(NSF) by forming an industry–university consortium called the Center for Manufacturing and Automation Research (CMAR). NSF funded CMAR with
a $2 million grant and a five-year commitment. NSF
funding in particular was sought because of the
instant credibility that NSF sponsorship gives to
such an institute.
NSF requested that several more universities
be added to the consortium. In addition, an NSF
evaluator was to be present at all IMAR meetings
and conduct ongoing evaluation of CMAR’s progress. IMAR already had UCLA and USC among its
members and now added four university affiliates
to work on research projects: the University of
California, Irvine; University of California, Santa
Barbara; Caltech; and Arizona State University.
The IMAR steering committee then voted to fund
research projects at an affiliated university only if it
involved cooperation with either USC or UCLA.
Each of the four university affiliates was paired
with either USC or UCLA. Each affiliate university
was selected because it provided expertise in an
area of interest to IMAR’s industrial membership.
Arizona State, for example, had expertise in
knowledge-based simulation systems in industrial
engineering, a field of special concern to IMAR’s
membership. IMAR funded a number of projects,
including projects between the affiliated universities, between joint investigators at USC and
UCLA, and independent projects at USC and
UCLA. Figure 2.3 shows IMAR’s structure.
CMAR operated under the auspices of IMAR
with the same board of directors serving both
consortia. There are two codirectors of CMAR:
Dr. George Bekey, chairman of the Computer
Science Department at USC, and Dr. Michel
Melkanoff, director of UCLA’s Center for Integrated Manufacturing. As codirectors they had an
indirect reporting relationship to Dale Hartman.
Their responsibilities included distributing the
research funds and serving as the focal point on
their respective campuses. Questions from project
team members are directed to one or the other
codirector, depending on the project. Each of the
codirectors takes responsibility for managing project team members and providing rewards, such as
reduced course loads, to research professors
wherever possible.
The codirectors further work to encourage
informal ties with industry members. For example,
Dr. Bekey initiated efforts to have IMAR representatives regularly visit others’ facilities to encourage
them to cooperate and share ideas. That practice
further deepens each industrial member’s commitment to IMAR because the representatives were
associating with one another and other colleagues
in the workplace. In the event that an industry or
university representative left, an associate was
more likely to be there to take his or her place.
Further, Bekey noted that the association between
industry and university helped industry to overcome its short-term orientation and helped university people appreciate applied problems and
manufacturing needs.
IMAR’s board of directors set the research
agenda at annual reviews in which it made recommendations for topics to be funded. IMAR took
these recommendations and translated them into
“requests for proposals” that were circulated
among the participating university members.
CMAR’s codirectors then solicited proposals from
the university membership. Researchers’ proposals were evaluated and ranked by industry representatives and then passed back to the industry
advisory board, which made final determinations
on which projects would be funded.
Not only did IMAR engage in research projects, such as microelectronics, digital computers,
lasers, and fiber optics, it worked to resolve critical
problems for manufacturing innovation research.
One area of study was technology transfer. IMAR
established a pilot production facility that Hartman
called “a halfway house for manufacturing.” The
facility permitted basic research to be brought to
maturity and was capable of producing deliverable
parts. The facility also engaged in systems-level
research in such areas as management and systems software, and provided an excellent training
ground for students.
37
PART 1 OVERVIEW OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT
FIGURE 2.3
Organizational Structure of the Institute for Manufacturing and Automation Research (IMAR)
© Cengage Learning
38
Another strength of IMAR was its affiliation
with an NSF evaluator who was appointed to follow the progress of the industry–university cooperative research center. Dr. Ann Marczak was
IMAR’s initial NSF evaluator. NSF conducted regular audits of the 39 IUCRCPs it sponsored and
made information available about survey results,
others’ reports of what works, and so forth.
Dr. Marczak served a valuable function to IMAR
as an objective source of feedback. After her first
evaluation, for example, Marczak recommended
that a project team be formed to conduct ongoing
progress assessment for each of the research projects IMAR sponsored. The evaluator’s findings
also served as NSF’s means of determining how
well each of the funded centers was performing.
A center was judged successful if after five
years it could exist without NSF funds. NSF also
evaluated each center in terms of how much
industry money its projects generated, how much
additional money the center generated in research
projects, the number of patents granted, products
produced, and the satisfaction of faculty and industry
participants.
CHAPTER 2 THE NATURE OF PLANNED CHANGE
After two years of operation, IMAR had dealt
with many of the problems that so frequently plague collaborative research and development efforts
among organizations. It had a well-defined purpose
that was strongly supported by its members. It was
well structured and had a good balance of resources
and needs among its membership. Formal and
informal communication networks were established. It had strong leadership. Members of IMAR
respected Hartman for his technological expertise
and skills as a networker. Hartman had a strong
sense of IMAR’s mission. After a discussion with
him, one got the sense that there was not an obstacle he would not overcome. His vision continued to
inspire commitment among the IMAR membership.
39
As one member put it, “You end up wanting to see
what you can do for the cause.”
Not only did IMAR have the commitment of a
full-time leader and strong feedback from its NSF
evaluator, it involved user-driven research. Although
the research was basic, it was chosen by the users
themselves to benefit all members of the consortium. If the research had been applied, it would
have been more difficult for members to find projects yielding information that all of them could use.
The involvement of multiple universities further
provided the talent of top researchers in diverse
areas of technological expertise. Finally, NSF was
furnishing a large proportion of the funding for the
first five years as well as regular evaluations.
In contrast to Western societies, for example, the cultures of most Asian countries are
more hierarchical and status conscious, less open to discussing personal issues, more
concerned with “saving face,” and have a longer time horizon for results. These
cultural differences can make OD more difficult to implement, especially for North
American or European practitioners; they may simply be unaware of the cultural
norms and values that permeate the society.
The cultural values that guide OD practice in the United States, for example,
include a tolerance for ambiguity, equality among people, individuality, and achievement motives. An OD process that encourages openness among individuals, high
levels of participation, and actions that promote increased effectiveness is viewed favorably. The OD practitioner is also assumed to hold these values and to model them in
the conduct of planned change. Many reported cases of OD involve Western-based
organizations using practitioners trained in the traditional model and raised and
experienced in Western society.
When OD is applied outside of North America or Europe (and sometimes even
within these settings), the action research process must be adapted to fit the cultural context. For example, the diagnostic phase, which is aimed at understanding how the organization currently functions, can be modified in a variety of ways. Diagnosis can involve
many organization members or include only senior executives; be directed from the top,
conducted by an outside consultant, or performed by internal consultants; or involve
face-to-face interviews or organizational documents. Each step in the general model of
planned change must be carefully mapped against the cultural context.
Conducting OD in international settings can be highly stressful on OD practitioners. To be successful, they must develop a keen awareness of their own cultural
biases, be open to seeing a variety of issues from another perspective, be fluent in the
values and assumptions of the host country, and understand the economic and political
context of business in the host country. Most OD practitioners are not able to meet all
of those criteria and partner with a “cultural guide,” often a member of the client organization, to help navigate the cultural, operational, and political nuances of change in
that society.

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