BIO 141 Cuyamaca College Blood Pressure Lab Report

Description

Blood Pressure Lab Write-up: Produce a lab write up for the body position activity of the Blood Pressure lab. Complete a Results Section. Include one graph and a table. The graph should have a descriptive title. Do not restate raw data. The table should include calculated measures of central tendency (mean and median) and some measure of spread. Write a Summary Section. (5-6 paragraphs) Explain your data by using information you introduced in your introduction. Make sure to demonstrate you understand the underlying physiology explaining why blood pressure changes in response to changes in body position. Refer to your table and graph and point out any important data. If your results did not match your expected results, write a paragraph suggesting one reason your results might have been different from the expected results. Prepare a References Cited section. Make sure to include all sources you cite in your write up. Do not include sources you do not cite. References Cited. You need to provide you reader with enough information so they can find your sources. You should be consistent and thorough. You need to use your textbook and the lab manual. You may use other sources such as websites if you feel the need. Provide enough detail so your reader can find the information if they desire. Your graph should show class averages of the blood pressure component in your hypothesis for each body position. You should include a short narrative highlighting your data in this section. Below are examples for single authors, multiple authors, and websites: Silverthorn, DU. 2019. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach (8th Edition). Pearson Publishing. S. Caldwell, A. Didomenico, A. Shearer, and R. Botten. 2019. Laboratory Manual for Human Physiology Grossmont College (8th Edition). Baroreflex Regulation of Blood Pressure Animation. Online. Alila Medical Media. Available: Updated October 1, 2020 [Accessed October 30, 2022]important = you must have graphs and/or tables summarizing the data (don’t submit raw data) and some numerical analysis (mean, standard deviation, confidence interval). Make sure to incorporate the requirements in the write up instructions and all of the tips and requirements I have given you this semester to produce a stellar write up. For the table, you should include measures of central tendency and spread for sitting (systolic and diastolic) and yoga mat (systolic and diastolic) pressures. Report the means and medians for the measures of central tendency for sitting (systolic and diastolic) and yoga mat (systolic and diastolic) pressures. Measures of spread include range, standard deviation, standard error and confidence interval for sitting (systolic and diastolic) and yoga mat (systolic and diastolic) pressures.Blood Pressure Lab Write-up:
Produce a lab write up for the body position activity of the Blood Pressure lab.
1. Complete a Results Section. Include one graph and a table. The graph should have a
descriptive title. Do not restate raw data. The table should include calculated measures
of central tendency (mean and median) and some measure of spread.
Your graph should show class averages of the blood pressure component in your
hypothesis for each body position. You should include a short narrative highlighting
your data in this section.
2. Write a Summary Section. (5-6 paragraphs) Explain your data by using information
you introduced in your introduction. Make sure to demonstrate you understand the
underlying physiology explaining why blood pressure changes in response to changes in
body position. Refer to your table and graph and point out any important data. If your
results did not match your expected results, write a paragraph suggesting one reason your
results might have been different from the expected results.
3. Prepare a References Cited section. Make sure to include all sources you cite in your
write up. Do not include sources you do not cite. References Cited. You need to provide
you reader with enough information so they can find your sources. You should be
consistent and thorough. You need to use your textbook and the lab manual. You may use
other sources such as websites if you feel the need. Provide enough detail so your reader
can find the information if they desire.
Below are examples for single authors, multiple authors, and websites:
Silverthorn, DU. 2019. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach (8th Edition).
Pearson Publishing.
S. Caldwell, A. Didomenico, A. Shearer, and R. Botten. 2019. Laboratory Manual for
Human Physiology Grossmont College (8th Edition).
Baroreflex Regulation of Blood Pressure Animation. Online. Alila Medical Media.
Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X3BCFOlk1oQ. Updated October 1, 2020
[Accessed October 30, 2022]
Mean
Standard
Deviation
SE =
Standard Error
ME =
Margin of Error
2 SE (Stand Error)
Blood Pressure Lab Write-up:
Produce a lab write up for the body position activity of the Blood Pressure lab.
1. Complete a Results Section. Include one graph and a table. The graph should have a
descriptive title. Do not restate raw data. The table should include calculated measures
of central tendency (mean and median) and some measure of spread.
Your graph should show class averages of the blood pressure component in your
hypothesis for each body position. You should include a short narrative highlighting
your data in this section.
2. Write a Summary Section. (5-6 paragraphs) Explain your data by using information
you introduced in your introduction. Make sure to demonstrate you understand the
underlying physiology explaining why blood pressure changes in response to changes in
body position. Refer to your table and graph and point out any important data. If your
results did not match your expected results, write a paragraph suggesting one reason your
results might have been different from the expected results.
3. Prepare a References Cited section. Make sure to include all sources you cite in your
write up. Do not include sources you do not cite. References Cited. You need to provide
you reader with enough information so they can find your sources. You should be
consistent and thorough. You need to use your textbook and the lab manual. You may use
other sources such as websites if you feel the need. Provide enough detail so your reader
can find the information if they desire.
Below are examples for single authors, multiple authors, and websites:
Silverthorn, DU. 2019. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach (8th Edition).
Pearson Publishing.
S. Caldwell, A. Didomenico, A. Shearer, and R. Botten. 2019. Laboratory Manual for
Human Physiology Grossmont College (8th Edition).
Baroreflex Regulation of Blood Pressure Animation. Online. Alila Medical Media.
Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X3BCFOlk1oQ. Updated October 1, 2020
[Accessed October 30, 2022]
Week 11-12: Blood Pressure
Purpose:
Blood pressure assessment (sphygmomanometry) is one of the most common physical
tests performed in modern medical practice. This non-invasive procedure allows a health
care professional to help determine the cardiovascular health of a patient by comparing
recorded data against normal limits for a person’s age and sex. Today you will learn about
the basic principles of sphygmomanometry and perform the procedure on your classmates.
Introduction:
Proper perfusion of vital organs is necessary for survival. The systemic arterial vessels
must deliver blood to the peripheral capillaries in an efficient manner to meet the
metabolic demands of the peripheral tissues. As the heart completes the ejection phase of
ventricular systole the volume of blood ejected (the stroke volume) must be transmitted
from the aorta to smaller arteries until this blood eventually reaches the capillary beds for
gas exchange. This blood flow is directly proportional to the change in pressure along the
vessel, and indirectly proportional to the resistance along the vessel F=ΔP/R. Resistance is
determined by factors that would impede or slow down blood flow. Blood viscosity, or
thickness, and blood vessel diameter based on vasoconstriction and vasodilation are the
key factors that determine resistance.
Resistance is directly proportional to the viscosity of blood- therefore thicker blood will
cause blood flow to decrease due to increased resistance. Resistance is indirectly
proportional to the radius of the blood vessel raised to the fourth power (r4).
Vasoconstriction, which decreases the vessel diameter, will increase resistance greatly and
slow blood flow. Conversely, vasodilation, which increases the blood vessel diameter, will
decrease resistance greatly and speed blood flow. The interplay between pressure changes
and resistance determines the amount of stress a vessel wall is subjected to and the amount
of work the left ventricle must do to open the aortic valve against aortic pressure.
Blood pressure measurements are built on three physiologic principles: the cardiac cycle,
aortic rebound, and elasticity of major blood vessels. Blood pressure is determined by
applying pressure to the brachial artery and auscultating (listening to) the sounds of blood
flow through the vessel. The sounds assessed through a stethoscope are called Korotkoff
sounds and are based on how the blood is flowing through the compressed brachial artery.
As pressure is applied to the brachial artery the blood flow through the vessel will be
completely occluded or blocked. As the pressure is slowly released from the
sphygmomanometer the blood will slowly start to pass through the vessel, but it will be
turbulent and make a lot of noise in the stethoscope. This first Korotkoff sound is the first
“loud knock” heard in the stethoscope and is when the health care professional reads
systolic pressure. Pressure is continually released from the cuff and blood flow will
become “smoother” through the vessel because it is not squeezing through a small space.
The blood flow sound will be more muffled (this is the second Korotkoff sound). When
the blood finally flows smoothly through vessel the cuff is approximately equal to
diastolic blood pressure. Most professionals read the diastolic pressure when the blood
flow sounds disappear..
The two values obtained directly from this process are the systolic and diastolic blood
pressures. The systolic blood pressure reflects the pressure (mm Hg) in the major arteries
as blood moves through the vessel due to the contraction of the left ventricle. The diastolic
pressure reflects the pressure (mm Hg) in the major arteries while the left ventricle is
relaxed. These values are written with the systolic pressure in mmHg over the diastolic
pressure: systolic/ diastolic
Additional values can be calculated from the systolic and diastolic pressures that are also
used to assess patient health are the pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP). The
pulse pressure is calculated by subtracting the diastolic pressure from the systolic pressure
(systolic-diastolic). (This number should be positive. If you calculate a negative pulse
pressure check your original recordings and ensure that you have set up the equation
properly). The pulse pressure can help a physician determine the relative stroke volume
(blood ejected by the left ventricle) and the resistance in the arteries. The MAP helps
determine the average rate of blood flow in the systemic arterial circuit as well as the
relative stress the blood vessels are heart are subjected to.
The MAP requires that you calculate the pulse pressure first. To calculate the MAP add
2/3( diastolic) pressure to 1/3 (systolic pressure): MAP = 2/3(diastolic blood pressure) +
1/3(systolic pressure). The MAP must be high enough to supply tissues with sufficient
oxygen, but a very high MAP may be indicative of cardiovascular stress and/or disease.
The MAP must be a minimum of 60mmHg to keep organs properly perfused, and
normally ranges from 70-110mmHg. High MAPs indicate that the cardiovascular system
is stressed and may not function normally.
In this lab, you will explore the effects of different body positions (supine, sitting, and
standing) and conditions (post-exercise) on heart rate and blood pressure. Make sure to
think about how these differences impact on thoracic pressures and the autonomic reflexes
which control cardiovascular activity.
Materials Needed:
1.Automatic sphygmomanometer
2. Stethoscope
3 Yoga mat or towel
For each of the body and positions, you well obtain heart rate and blood pressure
(systolic/diastolic) measurements from both the left and right arm. Report two rates and two
measurements from each arm and calculate the averages.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
Begin your measurements with the subject sitting comfortably in a chair. Obtain a total
of four (two from each arm) blood pressure and pulse rate readings while the subject is
in this position. Record systolic and diastolic pressures (mm Hg) as well as heart rate
(BPM)
Disconnect the automatic sphygmomanometer and have the subject assume a supine
position on a yoga mat. Allow the subject to rest for 90 seconds before taking any blood
pressure readings.
Obtain a total of four (two from each arm) blood pressure and pulse rate readings while
the subject is supine on the yoga mat. Allow thirty seconds between each reading and
alternate arms. Record systolic and diastolic pressures (mm Hg) as well as heart rate
(BPM).
The student will rise from the mat and assume a sitting position in a chair. Immediately
obtain blood pressure and pulse rate readings for each arm. Remaining sitting for an
additional 90 seconds and take another reading from each arm. Record systolic and
diastolic pressures (mm Hg) as well as heart rate (BPM).
Disconnect the automatic sphygmomanometer and have the subject stand up. Allow the
subject to stay in this position for 30 seconds before taking any blood pressure readings.
Obtain a total of four (two from each arm) blood pressure and pulse rate readings while
the subject is standing. Allow thirty seconds between each reading and alternate arms.
Record systolic and diastolic pressures (mm Hg) as well as heart rate (BPM).
Disconnect the automatic sphygmomanometer
The student will exercise for 2-3 minutes and immediately sit down in a chair.
Immediately obtain blood pressure and pulse rate readings for each arm.
Remain seated for an additional two minutes and take another reading from each arm.
Record systolic and diastolic pressures (mm Hg) as well as heart rate (BPM).
Name: _______________________________________________________________________
Age: _____________________________
Sex ______________________
Table 1: Data for Blood Pressure (mm Hg)
Condition
Left arm
(Seated)
Right arm
(Seated)
Left arm
(Supine)
Right arm
(Supine)
Right arm
(Standing)
Left arm
(Standing)
Left arm (Postexercise1)
Left arm (Postexercise2)
Trial 1
Systolic
Diastolic
Trial 2
Systolic
Diastolic
XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX
Table 2: Data for Heart Rate (BPM)
Condition
Trial 1
Trial 2
Left arm
(Seated)
Right arm
(Seated)
Left arm
(Supine)
Right arm
(Supine)
Right arm
(Standing)
Left arm
(Standing)
Left arm (PostXXX
exercise1)
Left arm (PostXXX
exercise2)
Average
Systolic
Diastolic
Average
Table 3: Calculations (mmHg)
Condition
Left arm (Seated)
Right arm
(Seated)
Left arm
(Supine)
Right arm
(Supine)
Left arm
(Standing)
Left arm (Postexercise1)
Left arm (Postexercise2)
Pulse Pressure
MAP
T930AM
Sitting
102
110.5
111.5
92.5
126
97
124
123
84
120
108.5
107.5
107.5
Means
108.8
65
81
75.5
62
86.5
70
82
75
55
70
72
76
82
Yoga Mat
104.5
61.5
107.5
62
113
75
100
55
119
82
102.5
64
119.5
70
134
74
100
59
114
62
108.5
70.5
111
76.5
115
81
73.2
111.4
68.7

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