BHVS 320 CTU Unit 4 Analytical Reasoning and Presentation of Data Outline


The problem addressed by this research project is depression.

Literature Review – one important sentence from each

Article summary one from Unit 1

Article summary two from Unit 2
Article summary three from Unit 3

Article summary four from Unit 3
Article summary five from Unit 3

Article summary six from Unit 4
Article summary seven from Unit 4
Article summary eight from Unit 4
An outline should have no more than 1-2 sentences for each line1
Stress and Burnout
Donna Johnson
Colorado Technical University
Nicole Dennis
Stress and Burnout
Summary of the Studies
In summary, the three articles provide different implications of stress and burnout in the
workplace. Candeias t al. (2021) discuss the level of burnout and stress among teachers in a
demanding and more strenuous profession. The study included 7086 non-specialized or general
educators and 442 specialist teachers or educators specialized in specific areas to compare the
level of stress and burnout and its outcome. The study observed that teachers with more
academic and professional skills were more resilient to stress and burnout. According to the
study, burnout among non-specialists was higher than among specialist teachers, reflecting their
training and professional level in the field. The article by Peasley et al. (2020) investigates the
effect of personal stress resulting in burnout on salespersons and low productivity in the
workplace. In the article, salespersons experience work-related stress due to the customer-facing
roles and the ambiguous nature of their work environment, which results in high burnout cases.
The findings and outcome show that burnout and stress affect motivation and psychological
wellness, which interfere with performance and productivity. The article by Rožman et al. (2019)
shows that occupational stress is associated with age-diverse employees within the workplace.
The author claims that different people experience varying levels of occupational stress, where
older people encounter high levels of emotional stress and burnout compared to younger
The result from the article by Rožman et al. (2019) shows a variation in occupational
stress, symptoms of burnout, and employee satisfaction experience among young and older
employees. The result measured the three dimensions of burnout; behavioral, emotional, and
physical symptoms. In emotional symptoms, young workers were more affected than older
workers. Behavioral symptoms also manifested more in younger workers, while physical
symptoms were high in older workers. The result by Peasley et al. (2020) showed 58% emotional
exhaustion, 48% diminished personal accomplishment, 63% depersonalization, and 39%
variation in performance. The association between personal performance and burnout was
associated with emotional exhaustion and diminishing personal accomplishment, which overall
reduced salesperson performance and achievement at work. The result by Candeias t al. (2021)
shows a difference in stress and burnout among specialist and non-specialist teachers. The results
were obtained based on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal and professional
fulfillment. The non-specialist teachers were found to be vulnerable to stress and burnout at
36.5% compared to specialist teachers at 19.9%. The professional experience and personal life
fulfillment among non-specialist teachers contributed to the high stress and burnout rate.
Descriptive statistics or inferential statistics and justification
The study by Candeias t al. (2021) adopted inferential statistics. This can be observed
through the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) tool, which was used to measure the level of
burnout manifested by the teachers. Besides, the study applied the tool to show the relationship
between the teacher population and three dimension outcome of burnout, which include
emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal and professional performance. The study
by Peasley et al. (2020) applied inferential statistics, which is seen through the use of the
Qualtrics panel with a sample of business-to-business (B2B) salespeople. It also used the tool to
measure the hypothesis to analyze the behavior pattern related to burnout and stress on
salespersons. Lastly, the study by Rožman et al. (2019 applied inferential statistics based on the
use of the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) tool to measure the hypothesis on the difference between
young and older employees toward burnout and stress. The study also used the Mann-Whitney U
test tool to identify the impact of occupational stress, behavior, and the emotional and physical
symptoms associated with employee burnout.
Peasley, M. C., Hochstein, B., Britton, B. P., Srivastava, R. V., & Stewart, G. T. (2020). Can’t
leave it at home? The effects of personal stress on burnout and salesperson
performance. Journal of Business Research, 117, 58-70.
Rožman, M., Grinkevich, A., & Tominc, P. (2019). Occupational stress, symptoms of burnout in
the workplace and work satisfaction of the age-diverse employees. Organizacija, 52(1),
Candeias, A., Galindo, E., Calisto, I., Borralho, L., & Reschke, K. (2021). Stress and burnout in
teaching. Study in an inclusive school workplace. Health Psychology Report, 9(1), 63-75.
Unit 2-IP-BHVS320
Donna k. Johnson
Colorado Technical University
Nicole Dennis
Unit 2-IP-BHVS320
Explain how this meets the criteria of valid and reliable data.
The article is accurate and reliable because the outcomes can be replicated if the study is
recreated under similar conditions. The article’s data is also valid because the results correspond
perfectly to the established theories in the paper and measures of other similar concepts. The
article also used appropriate measurement techniques, such as the policy-capturing approach that
allows for decisions and judgments to be studied systematically. The data is also valid and
reliable because the methods used in collecting and measuring data were applied consistently
throughout the study, such as online surveys and manipulation checks.
The purpose of the research and research question
The researchers curated the study to investigate the varying effects of employee burnout
dimension and how it impacts customer service. Nesher Shoshan and Sonnentag (2020)
hypothesized that customers interacting with depersonalized employees would likely feel hostile
and angry, translating to low service perceptions. The research question was; What are the
different burnout dimensions that affect customer service perceptions? To answer this question,
the researchers examined two burnout dimensions, depersonalization and emotional exhaustion,
and how they impact service interactions.
The target population
The target population was a German university with a mid-sized population. Students
from this university participated in the research as part of the learning requirements. The study
sample comprised 156 learners, 84 percent women with an average age of 21.76 years. Roughly
half were psychology scholars (55 percent), while the other 45 percent pursued sociology.
Regarding occupational experience, nearly half of the scholars (62.2 percent) possessed a certain
level of professional knowledge, with a notable variance in job occupation (Nesher Shoshan &
Sonnentag, 2020).
The study methodology
Nesher Shoshan & Sonnentag (2020) used a policy-capturing approach to test the study
hypothesis in a subject vignette experiment. The above method enabled the researchers to
examine the decisions and judgments made by participants in a systemic order. In the research,
how employee burnout affects customer service perception was tested. The sample size
comprised 156 students, 84 percent of whom were female. The research used an online survey
system to recruit study participants. The study used three items of the German version to
measure hostility and anger and also measured the perception of service using three items of
perceived customer orientation (Nesher Shoshan & Sonnentag, 2020). At the end of the study,
participants revealed their age, semester of study, gender, and professional experience.
The results of the study
The article’s result section indicated that depersonalization cues highlighted in the
vignette would negatively affect student service perception. It also highlighted that students’
hostility and anger would likely mediate the impact of depersonalization cues on the perceptions
of service. The results also indicated that emotional fatigue cues substantially influenced the
association between depersonalization cues on the one side and hostility and anger on the other
(Nesher Shoshan & Sonnentag, 2020). When emotional cues were present, the effects of
depersonalization cues on service notions evidenced through anger and hostility were reduced.
A summary of the limitations of the study
One of the research’s shortcomings is that using a policy-capturing method would likely
raise concerns about participants’ fatigue. To help reduce fatigue, Nesher Shoshan and Sonnentag
(2020) chose a minimal number of short vignettes to allow them to respond to their study
question. Another limitation is the issue of social desirability (Nesher Shoshan & Sonnentag,
2020). Students participating in the study might have been careful to report negative perceptions
and emotions towards campus employees and the university. The studies was also limited by
A summary of the conclusions of the study
In summary, the research indicated that the impact of worker burnout was not limited
only to employee service notions but negatively impacted general organizations’ notions of
service. Organizations, therefore, need to recognize employee burnout. The study also
discovered that different burnout dimensions had varying effects on customers. Therefore,
organizations should develop strategies to minimize employees’ likelihood of depersonalizing
customers (Nesher Shoshan & Sonnentag, 2020). Lastly, the study discovered that organizations
should shape behavioral rules to impact customers positively.
Include a section describing how this article relates to their chosen problem. Indicate how
the article is assisting with project.
The article relates to the chosen problem in that it addresses the consequences of burnout
for individuals interacting with burnout personnel, highlighting the importance of customer
service perceptions for organizations. The research will help the project make a causal inference
on how burnout affects employees and customer service. Furthermore, the research will enable
team members to project insight into customer emotion and employee burnout by combining
both kinds of literature. Moreover, the study will allow others to contribute to the ongoing
discussion regarding the link between different burnout dimensions by highlighting different
burnout dimensions and their effects on customers.
Nesher Shoshan, H., & Sonnentag, S. (2020). The effects of employee burnout on customers: An
experimental approach. Work & Stress, 34(2), 127-147.
Stress and Burnout
Student Name
Course Name
Professor Name
Date of Submission
Stress and Burnout
Chronic stress from the workplace leads to burnout. Experiencing cause lead individuals to feel
drained emotionally, unpleasant, and disconnected from their work, resulting in decreased
performance and creativity, higher rates of workplace accidents and absenteeism, as well as
potential physical and mental health issues. According to Otto et al. (2020), the creation and
validation of a new instrument for evaluating and encouraging proactive activities among
employees to decrease burnout risks. The Proactive Burnout Prevention Inventory (PBPI) is
introduced by the authors as a means to monitor the proactive measures taken by employees to
decrease their susceptibility to burnout. Five hundred forty-seven employees from various
sectors, including healthcare, education, and retail, comprised the study’s sample size (Otto et al.,
2020). The Proactive Burnout Prevention Inventory (PBPI) assesses proactive behavior based on
four components: taking care of oneself, soliciting feedback, utilizing active coping strategies,
and clarifying the demands of one’s job.
The article’s introduction section emphasizes the growing worry regarding the high
prevalence of employee burnout and the need for efficient interventions to prevent and lessen
burnout (Otto et al., 2020). Although previous research focused primarily on organizational
remedies, the authors stress that employee participation is now considered crucial in mitigating
burnout. The authors contend that encouraging workers to take charge of their working
environment and adopt proactive habits can help lower the risk of burnout (Otto et al., 2020).
Nevertheless, a credible and trustworthy method is required for evaluating such behaviors.
The authors present the Proactive Burnout Prevention Inventory (PBPI), which tracks
employees’ proactive efforts to lower their risk of burnout. The article’s techniques portion
describes the PBPI development process (Otto et al., 2020). The authors reviewed the literature
and spoke with specialists to find potential proactive actions that workers might adopt to avoid
burnout. Following creating a pool of things based on these tendencies, they underwent pilot
testing to improve the items and eliminate duplication. The PBPI’s final form includes 21 items
that evaluate self-care, requesting feedback, active coping, and defining job demands, the four
components of proactive behavior (Otto et al., 2020).
The study’s sample size comprised five hundred and forty-seven employees from various
industries, including healthcare, education, and retail. The authors investigated the factor
structure of the PBPI and evaluated its validity and reliability using exploratory and confirmatory
factor analysis (Otto et al., 2020). The findings showed that the PBPI has strong internal
consistency, test-retest reliability, and good psychometric qualities. It was discovered that the
four dimensions of proactive behavior are unique but connected, indicating that they each refer
to a different part of the same underlying construct. The PBPI was also found to be negatively
connected with burnout and positively correlated with job satisfaction by the authors, suggesting
that proactive employees are less likely to develop burnout (Otto et al., 2020).
The article’s discussion section focuses on the PBPI’s potential organizational
applications and implications for further research. According to the authors, firms to evaluate
and encourage proactive employee behavior to avoid burnout can use the PBPI. For instance,
businesses can utilize the PBPI to pinpoint workers in danger of burnout and offer tailored
treatments to encourage proactive actions. The authors add that by tracking changes in pro-active
behaviors over time, the PBPI can be used to assess the efficacy of burnout prevention initiatives
(Otto et al., 2020).
The study’s dependence on self-report measures, which are prone to response bias and
might not accurately reflect actual behavior, is one of the study’s weaknesses acknowledged by
the authors. However, most of the study’s sample was white, Dutch-speaking workers from
Western Europe, which restricted the findings’ applicability to other populations (Otto et al.,
2020). They advise utilizing objective measures of exhaustion and including more varied
samples in future studies to solve these shortcomings. In the opinion of Otto et al. (2020), future
studies should explore how proactive measures could contribute to the long-term reduction of
burnout. Additionally, it is suggested that the impact of cultural and environmental factors on the
efficacy of burnout prevention strategies be taken into account.
The research concludes by introducing a new tool for evaluating and encouraging
proactive action among workers to lower the danger of burnout. The Proactive Burnout
Prevention Inventory (PBPI) assesses proactive behavior across four categories: engaging in selfcare, actively seeking feedback, utilizing active coping mechanisms, and clarifying job demands.
The PBPI has high psychometric qualities, and the study discovered a positive correlation
between it and job satisfaction and a negative correlation between it and burnout (Otto et al.,
2020). The PBPI, according to the authors, can be used by organizations to gauge employee
proactivity in preventing burnout and gauging the success of burnout prevention initiatives.
Otto, M. C., Van Ruysseveldt, J., Hoefsmit, N., & Dam, K. V. (2020). The development of a
proactive burnout prevention inventory: How employees can contribute to reduce
burnout risks. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public
Health, 17(5), 1711.

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